Property talk:P527

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has part
part of this subject. Inverse property of "part of" (P361).
DescriptionObject is a part of this subject. Opposite of part of (P361).
Representshas part (Q24575087), consist of (Q55692548)
Data typeItem
DomainAny (note: this should be moved to the property statements)
Allowed valuesAny (note: this should be moved to the property statements)
Usage notes
ExampleEurasia (Q5401)Europe (Q46) and Asia (Q48)
Solar System (Q544)Mercury (Q308), Venus (Q313), Earth (Q2) and Mars (Q111)
Americas (Q828)North America (Q49) and South America (Q18)
The Beatles (Q1299)John Lennon (Q1203), Paul McCartney (Q2599), Ringo Starr (Q2632) and George Harrison (Q2643)
Bible (Q1845)Old Testament (Q19786), New Testament (Q18813) and Biblical apocrypha (Q170207)
Sergeanne Golon (Q4066510)Anne Golon (Q263213) and Serge Golon (Q2338056)
triathlon (Q10980)running (Q105674), road bicycle racing (Q3609) and swimming (Q31920)
Robot and gadget jobsDeltaBot does the following jobs:
Tracking: sameno label (Q42533320)
Tracking: usageCategory:Pages using Wikidata property P527 (Q23909038)
See alsoincluding (P1012), has parts of the class (P2670), material used (P186), does not have part (P3113), contains administrative territorial entity (P150), tracklist (P658), has facility (P912), undercarriage (P1637), contains (P4330)
  • Count of items by number of statements (chart)
  • Count of items by number of sitelinks (chart)
  • Items with the most identifier properties
  • Items with no other statements
  • Items with novalue claims
  • Items with unknown value claims
  • Usage history
  • Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P527
  • Database reports/Constraint violations/P527
  • Proposal discussionOriginally created without a formal discussion
    Current uses461,997
    [create] Create a translatable help page (preferably in English) for this property to be included here
    Qualifiers “start time (P580), end time (P582), point in time (P585), proportion (P1107), quantity (P1114), object has role (P3831), series ordinal (P1545), determination method (P459), statement is subject of (P805), of (P642), shape (P1419), defining formula (P2534), followed by (P156), follows (P155), oxidation state (P1121), has quality (P1552), height (P2048), width (P2049), thickness (P2610), contains (P4330), instrument (P1303), lower limit (P5447), upper limit (P5448), nature of statement (P5102): this property should be used only with the listed qualifiers. (Help)
    Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist.
    List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P527#Allowed qualifiers, SPARQL, SPARQL (new)
    Conflicts with “instance of (P31): Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410), Wikimedia category (Q4167836): this property must not be used with the listed properties and values. (Help)
    Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist.
    List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P527#Conflicts with P31, SPARQL, SPARQL (new)
    Pictogram voting comment.svg relations between instances and classes must use P2670
    if a concrete object is made out of classes, has parts of the class (P2670) instead of has part (P527) must be used. (Help)
    Violations query: SELECT DISTINCT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P527 ?class . ?item wdt:P31 [] . ?class wdt:P279 [] . MINUS { ?item wdt:P279 [] } MINUS { ?class wdt:P31 [] } }
    List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P527#relations between instances and classes must use P2670
    This property is being used by:


    Please notify projects that use this property before big changes (renaming, deletion, merge with another property, etc.)

    Usage note[edit]

    Usage is detailed in Help:Basic membership properties.



    This page really needs a good outline of when to use this property and when material used (P186) should be used. --Tobias1984 (talk) 20:09, 20 May 2013 (UTC)

    They're similar, but not the same. Perhaps the two could be merged, but we'd have to use qualifiers, otherwise we'd have buildings consisting of all kinds of unexpected things like carpets, and wallpaper. The main structural materials would become lost in a long list. Danrok (talk) 23:06, 22 May 2013 (UTC)

    Reciprocal property[edit]

    I think this property is quite well fitting as a reciprocal property to Property:P279 (subclass of). Example: Q5119 (capital) consists of Q134626 (district capital) and Q62049 (county seat).--Brühl (talk) 14:33, 10 June 2013 (UTC)

    I disagree, the inverse of this property is part of (P361). The inverse property of 'subclass of' would be 'has subclass'. For how this property differs from P279, I'd point interested readers to Help:Basic membership properties. Emw (talk) 02:00, 13 June 2013 (UTC)

    Would it make sense to create such property 'has subclass'? --Brühl (talk) 21:17, 14 June 2013 (UTC)

    consists of -> has part[edit]

    This property's defining feature seems to be that it's the inverse of part of (P361). However, this isn't obvious from the current label ("consists of"). Literature and ontologies that refer to this property tend to label it "hasPart": see here, here here, etc. Labeling this property "has part" (which is already an alias) would not only immediately clarify the property's proper usage, it would also be in line with a broader naming pattern that could be applied to properties and their inverses: "x of" for the property, and "has x" for its inverse. What are others' thoughts on changing this property's label from "consists of" to "has part"? Emw (talk) 00:42, 8 July 2013 (UTC)

    Symbol support vote.svg Support I think changing the english would be better. I am actually concern on the translation to other language that already translated the label to the original language, then they still am stuck with misinterpreting the property. --Napoleon.tan (talk) 10:43, 8 July 2013 (UTC)
    Symbol support vote.svg Support It is more simple to understand. --Paperoastro (talk) 14:47, 9 July 2013 (UTC) P.S.: in Italian language there is already, as alias, the translation of "has part". ;-)
    Symbol support vote.svg Support We should strive for compatibility. I suspect the current label is such because it is closer to natural language usage, but it can always be made an alias. Silver hr (talk) 23:43, 11 July 2013 (UTC)
    I've changed the label per above (diff). Emw (talk) 02:13, 29 July 2013 (UTC)

    Used as "has members"[edit]

    I've seen this property used as "has members" on items representing affiliations or organisations, like Top Industrial Managers for Europe (Q1351882). Is this type of usage correct? --Wylve (talk) 15:49, 20 September 2013 (UTC)

    constraint report relating to Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410)[edit]

    If instance of (P31) is a Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410) the presence of has part (P527) is prohibited

    see: Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410) with consists of (P527) . Usualy there might be two possibilities:
    a) please identify the non - ambiguation page (WD item) where the property consists of should be moved;
    "normally" no other statements should be left at the disambiguation page;
    it can happen that a set of properties should be moved to another (a second) WD item, another set to a third WD item etc.
    b) verify which language is a disambiguation page and separate it from the rest; please use Gadget-labelLister.js can be activated at preferences#gadgets to remove all faulty descriptions after the disambiguation page is separated (the languages are de, en, fr, es, pt, pt-br, ru, sv and possibly some others).

    Thanks in advance! gangLeri לערי ריינהארט (talk) 13:36, 23 May 2014 (UTC)

    Class has part non-class[edit]

    By my understanding, this property has three accepted uses:

    • Class X has part class Y: This means that every instance of X has [a] corresponding part[s] which is/are [an] instance[s] of Y.
    • Non-class X has part class Y: X has an unspecified number of instances of Y as parts.
    • Non-class X has part non-class Y: Simple. Y is part of X. Inverse of Y part of X.

    However, there are some 3000 uses of a fourth way: Class X has part non-class Y. See this query. Would it be correct to assume that all of these are mistakes in the data? --Yair rand (talk) 21:16, 3 December 2015 (UTC)

    @Yair rand: in a lot of cases, it looks as if Y in fact should be a class, but doesn't yet have a P279 to say so (or Y has been mistakenly marked as a instance of (P31) instead).
    I'm not entirely convinced you are right that everything in your fourth way is a mistake, though. For example, how would you analyse trivium (Q205186) has part (P527) rhetoric (Q81009), which appears on your list? Should 'rhetoric' have been made into a class (are, or could there be, different kinds of rhetoric?), or is it appropriate to leave it as rhetoric (Q81009) instance of (P31) academic discipline (Q11862829) ?
    Fundamentally, it seems you want to exclude cases where has part (P527) is being used as an inverse of instance of (P31) (and probably also cases where it is being used as an inverse of subclass of (P279):
    I think I do see why you want to do this, because it does conflict with your notion (1), making the property at the very least ambiguous or unclear in its definition as things stand.
    At the same time, there is a usefulness in having a property to denumerate a closed list of elements or subdivisions that a larger class contains, eg to be able to say
    class tropic (Q149273) "contains" Tropic of Capricorn (Q177440), Tropic of Cancer (Q176635) (only); or
    class Muses (Q66016) "contains" Clio (Q103968), Calliope (Q103975) ... etc; or
    class nucleon (Q102165) "contains" classes proton (Q2294), neutron (Q2348)
    The latter is indeed not compatible with your definition (1) above; and I do think this does need to be cleaned up, so that when one reads eg the statement baryon (Q159731) has part (P527) quark (Q6718), one can know that it is intended to say that "every baryon contains a quark", rather than "each quark is a kind of baryon" (incorrect).
    However, until a property exists that such lists can be put into, for the time being it may be best not to delete such statements that currently (mis?)use the property has part (P527).
    For some promising work towards such a new property, perhaps to be called "union of", see Wikidata:Property_proposal/Generic#.28Disjoint.29UnionOf_.28or_any_better_name.29, particularly the later comments. But until that is in place, it may be better not to delete some of these uses of P527. Jheald (talk) 09:35, 8 December 2015 (UTC)


    состоит из = подмножества: --Fractaler (talk) 11:30, 17 August 2016 (UTC)

    subproperty of[edit]

    =superset: ? --Fractaler (talk) 07:44, 2 September 2016 (UTC)

    No because P527 is not used to define relations between properties, but either between classes, or between objects/instances of these classses.
    There's a limited (discusable) use also of P527 to define relations between classes and their instances. It is bad in my opinion as instances may be subclassified, creating multiple (unlimited) class parents for the same instance.
    But in a limited usage, it is possibly arguable to link with P527 a class and its instances, provided that such class is final (i.e. not subclassed to another class applicable also to the instance) and the set of instances is wellknown and finished. For all other relations between instances and parent subclasses, it is best to use the transitivity of parent classes (this will minimize the number of P257 declarations needed, the final class enumerating all possible instances). Verdy p (talk) 15:06, 8 September 2016 (UTC)

    consists of equal parts of[edit]

    P527 - for equal parts or not? --Fractaler (talk) 12:29, 17 November 2016 (UTC)

    English label[edit]

    The English label for this property was recently changed from "has part" to "has as part", apparently without any discussion. This property is called "has part" in several existing ontologies, e.g. [1], [2], [3], so I don't see why we should call it differently. @Thierry Caro: I have reverted your edit pending discussion; what is the rationale for the label change? Mushroom (talk) 10:46, 11 December 2016 (UTC)

    Sounds better. Thierry Caro (talk) 16:55, 11 December 2016 (UTC)
    I don't think it sounds better, but it might differentiate it better from has parts of the class (P2670).
    --- Jura 17:23, 11 December 2016 (UTC)
    I think "has part" sounds better than "has as part". --Yair rand (talk) 22:43, 11 December 2016 (UTC)
    Parts = equal parts? Or not? Parts = parts with split (Q18511800), has (their own) parts, divisibility (subset (Q177646)) or not (element (Q379825), indivisibility)? --Fractaler (talk) 10:50, 12 December 2016 (UTC)
    When I first saw the change, I thought it was vandalism because it sounded so weird and unnatural to me. I also agree that "has part" is better. - Nikki (talk) 16:59, 15 December 2016 (UTC)


    The description of this property was changed to include "valuable subclass or exemplar", which directly contradicts its status as inverse of P361 and makes the property more or less unusable for its previous purpose. I think it's generally agreed that there's no need for an inverse of subclass of (P279), especially since union of (P2737) and disjoint union of (P2738) were created. Even if there were such a need, it wouldn't be this property.

    Would there be any objection to reverting the description change? --Yair rand (talk) 22:50, 19 December 2016 (UTC)

    If use set theory (Q12482) (subset->set->superset), then no problem. Problems - when subclass, class, superclass, union and so on. --Fractaler (talk) 13:52, 20 December 2016 (UTC)
    @Fractaler: Sorry, I don't understand what you mean. Could you rephrase that? --Yair rand (talk) 21:39, 20 December 2016 (UTC)
    I mean: instead of subclass, class, superclass, union and so on use the method of set theory (Q12482) (subset->set->superset). Now it is impossible. --Fractaler (talk) 07:28, 21 December 2016 (UTC)
    @Fractaler: I'm not sure I understand what the distinction between the two is, or what they have to do with whether P527 applies to subclass relationships. --Yair rand (talk) 07:20, 5 January 2017 (UTC)
    @Fractaler: I'm not sure we're understanding the property in the same way. "has part" means something like Eurasia (Q5401) has part (P527) Europe (Q46), as I understand it, which doesn't have much to do with classes or sets at all. P527 is the inverse of part of (P361). --Yair rand (talk) 20:12, 5 January 2017 (UTC)
    Eurasia (Q5401) - "continental landmass comprising Europe and Asia". Set Eurasia (Q5401) = subset "Europe (Q46) (continental landmass)" + subset "Asia (Q48) (continental landmass)". Not necessary "has part", subclass, class, superclass and so on. --Fractaler (talk) 07:00, 6 January 2017 (UTC)

    Proper use?[edit]

    Is this an acceptable use of this property? Q6259215#P527 --Valerio Bozzolan (talk) 17:59, 29 June 2017 (UTC)

    I don't think so, especially since the querying systems now have a specific way to deal with client-wiki categories. Seems redundant. --Yair rand (talk) 01:24, 30 June 2017 (UTC)
    @Yair rand: Can you link that feature? Is that feature accessible from Wikibase Lua modules? --Valerio Bozzolan (talk) 08:57, 30 June 2017 (UTC)
    @Valerio Bozzolan: Sorry for the late reply. The feature is detailed at mw:Wikidata query service/User Manual/MWAPI, using "categorymembers". It is not yet available via Lua as far as I know. --Yair rand (talk) 22:11, 12 September 2017 (UTC)

    Polygons and polyhedra[edit]

    So now, after deleting P1569 and P1570, relation "have n vertices and m edges" is modelled by P527. But this property requires inverse relation to P361. Should we put all polygons and polyhedra to the items side (Q26382) and vertex (Q26401)? --Infovarius (talk) 10:46, 21 August 2017 (UTC)

    Qualifiers P1114 (quantity) and P1107 (proportion)[edit]

    Should the qualifiers quantity (P1114) and proportion (P1107) be removed from the list of accepted qualifiers for this property? Is there any situation where such uses shouldn't be using has parts of the class (P2670) instead of P527? --Yair rand (talk) 01:01, 14 September 2017 (UTC)

    @Yair rand: Qualifier proportion (P1107) is currently used 36 times, mostly proportions of ingredients in recipes, elements in alloys, etc -- not countable sets of things. For these sorts of things the continued use of has part (P527) seems entirely appropriate.
    Qualifier quantity (P1114) is currently used 4066 times Some of the uses should definitely be switched to has parts of the class (P2670). On the other hand in a lot of cases the quantity is 1, which seems entirely acceptable. I'd also be happy with continued use of P527 where the number of items is say 2, eg as in the discussion on Reliquaries at Project Chat,
    Holy Thorn Reliquary (Q3932379) -> has part (P527) -> spine (Q201851) ; of (P642) -> crown of thorns (Q1127583) / quantity (P1114) -> 2
    For myself, I think the most valuable use of has parts of the class (P2670) is for making statements about classes: so one has the parallel
    Class A -> has parts of the class (P2670) -> Class X
    (eg: reliquary (Q722604) -> has parts of the class (P2670) -> relic (Q187616))
    Member a of class A -> has part (P527) -> Member x of class X
    (eg: Reliquary with the Tooth of Saint John the Baptist (Q24946506) -> has part (P527) -> tooth (Q553))
    But I accept that P2670 is also used for single items that have large numbers of parts of a single class. Jheald (talk) 09:35, 18 September 2017 (UTC)
    @Jheald: Hm, my understanding was that P2670 was to be used whenever the target item was a class, regardless of whether the subject is one, but I see from the PC discussion that it's not so clear. I would think that since spine (Q201851) is a class, the property there should be P2670.
    I'd like there to be some constraints to make a clear separation between P527 and P2670, but we need some consensus on how this property is used first. If the example you gave of has part (P527) -> spine (Q201851) is valid, that means the inverse constraint on this property is incorrect. If subject items shouldn't be classes for P527, there could be a constraint against P279. If it should only be used when the quantity is within a certain range, perhaps a complex constraint could work. --Yair rand (talk) 18:58, 19 September 2017 (UTC)

    Band members in timelines: allow qualifiers "instrument" and "pseudonym"[edit]

    Working towards a use case that would enable us to construct band member timelines from Wikidata, thus avoiding the language-vs-language discrepancies that we currently see in w:en:Voivod_(band)#Members (8 members over time) and w:fr:Voivod#Chronologie (10 members over time), and the laborious manual markup. To do so, however, we need to consider allowing more qualifiers on P527. For this specific use case, we need "instrument" and "pseudonym". The item for a specific band member might list all of the instruments they play, but their participation in a given band might be limited to a single instrument. Similarly, we see band members using specific aliases when they participate in different bands.

    I added the two qualifiers to the one band member in Voivod's WD item as an example.

    An alternate approach would be to propose a new property, similar to cast member (P161), and then migrating the ~1,500 uses of P527 on instances of rock band (haven't calculated the total across all musical ensembles) to the new property. Dan scott (talk) 18:43, 3 March 2018 (UTC)

    applies to part (P518), collection (P195)[edit]

    for polyptychs we need IMHO this qualifiers, see example The Pilgrimage of Life Triptych (Q29002011)

    Please don't add an inverse constraint to this property[edit]

    While part of (P361) is an inverse in principle, in practice we do not want it applied symmetrically: for items that are parts of thousands or more of other items, only this property (has part (P527)) should be used, not part of (P361) in the reverse direction. See also this discussion on Project Chat. ArthurPSmith (talk) 17:22, 25 June 2018 (UTC)