Property talk:P31

From Wikidata
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Documentation

instance of
that class of which this subject is a particular example and member; different from P279 (subclass of); for example: K2 is an instance of mountain; volcano is a subclass of mountain (and an instance of volcanic landform)
DescriptionThis item is an instance of that other item (which represents some type or grouping of entities). Rather use a more specific type or instance of property, if one applies.
Representsinstance of (Q21503252)
Data typeItem
DomainInstances (note: this should be moved to the property statements)
Allowed values
According to this template: Any item that represents a class; any item that is not an instance
According to statements in the property:
When possible, data should only be stored as statements
Usage notesUsage instructions in English
ExampleNelson Mandela (Q8023)human (Q5)
Gachalá Emerald (Q772466)emerald (Q43513)
lists of communes of France (Q177866)Wikimedia list article (Q13406463)
electron (Q2225)type of quantum particle (Q22675015)
Sourcehttp://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/#ch_type
Robot and gadget jobsDeltaBot does the following jobs: The gadget Wikidata useful lets the user choose among some common types and store the statement in one click.
Tracking: sameCategory tracking usage of P31 (instance of) (Q42533274)
Tracking: usageCategory:Pages using Wikidata property P31 (Q20117426)
Tracking: local yes, WD nono label (Q32764726)
See alsosubclass of (P279), part of (P361)
Lists
Proposal discussion[not applicable Proposal discussion]
Current uses
Total105,320,601
Main statement105,203,47799.9% of uses
Qualifier116,7590.1% of uses
Reference365<0.1% of uses
Search for values
[create Create a translatable help page (preferably in English) for this property to be included here]
Qualifiers “said to be the same as (P460), of (P642), start time (P580), part of (P361), end time (P582), follows (P155), followed by (P156), series ordinal (P1545), valid in period (P1264), replaced by (P1366), reason for deprecated rank (P2241), criterion used (P1013), Wikidata item of this property (P1629), end cause (P1534), valid in place (P3005), applies to part (P518), number of works (P3740), nature of statement (P5102), quantity (P1114), replaces (P1365), has quality (P1552), sourcing circumstances (P1480), statement is subject of (P805), foundational text (P457), including (P1012), statement disputed by (P1310), statement supported by (P3680), field of work (P101), determination method (P459), object named as (P1932), identity of subject in context (P4649), relative to (P2210), language of work or name (P407), reason for preferred rank (P7452), applies to jurisdiction (P1001), applies to name of item (P5168), main regulatory text (P92), excluding (P1011), state of conservation (P5816), publication interval (P2896), statement is regarded as spoiler for (P7528), has part(s) (P527), start period (P3415), end period (P3416), latest start date (P8555), earliest date (P1319), earliest end date (P8554), latest date (P1326), state of use (P5817), point in time (P585), subject named as (P1810), distributed by (P750), genre (P136), identity of object in context (P4626), victim (P8032), connecting line (P81), time period (P2348), phase of matter (P515), has cause (P828), connecting service (P1192), objective of project or action (P3712), applies to work (P10663), target (P533), together with (P1706), subject form (P5830): this property should be used only with the listed qualifiers. (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#Allowed qualifiers, SPARQL
None of art of painting (Q11629), art of sculpture (Q11634), former commune of France (Q18821702), art (Q735), music (Q638): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
Scope is as main value (Q54828448): the property must be used by specified way only (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#scope, SPARQL
Contemporaries:
if [item A] has this property (instance of (P31)) linked to [item B],
then [item A] and [item B] have to coincide or coexist at some point of history. (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#Contemporary, SPARQL
None of property likely to be challenged (Q44597997), property that may violate privacy (Q44601380): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: living people protection class (P8274)
Replacement values: (Help)
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, hourly updated report, SPARQL
None of Wikimedia article page (Q15138389): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of Homo (Q171283): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: human (Q5) (Help)
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, hourly updated report, SPARQL
None of woman (Q467), female (Q6581072): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: sex or gender (P21)
Replacement values: female (Q6581072) (Help)
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, hourly updated report, SPARQL
None of man (Q8441), male (Q6581097): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: sex or gender (P21)
Replacement values: male (Q6581097) (Help)
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, hourly updated report, SPARQL
None of Commons category (Q24574745): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: Wikimedia category (Q4167836) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of item of collection or exhibition (Q18593264): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of Historical Monument (Q916475), monument historique classé (Q10387684), registered historic monument (Q10387575): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: heritage designation (P1435)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of VTuber (Q55155641), YouTuber (Q17125263), video blogger (Q4110598), podcaster (Q15077007), Japanese idol (Q226008): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: occupation (P106)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of video game developer (Q58287519): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: occupation (P106)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of VR video game (Q87741364), console game (Q6561427), PC game (Q4485157), mobile game (Q1121542): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of audio podcast (Q24633474), video podcast (Q3276244), podcasting (Q20899), podcasting (Q33212151): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: podcast (Q24634210) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303). Known exceptions: podcasting in India (Q7206672)
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of hero (Q162244), villain (Q290691), supervillain (Q6498903), antihero (Q110910), antivillain (Q65622867), superhero (Q188784): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: character type (P9071)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of boss (Q468388), player character (Q1062345), non-playable character (Q466466): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: subject has role (P2868)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of pornographic film (Q185529), pornography (Q291): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: genre (P136)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of hentai (Q172067), visual novel (Q689445), eroge (Q1046788): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: genre (P136)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of josei (Q503106), shōjo (Q242492), children's anime and manga (Q478804), shōnen (Q231302), seinen (Q237338): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: intended public (P2360)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of entrepreneur (Q131524), digital marketer (Q89432399), digital marketing consultant (Q91038239), digital marketing expert (Q56279965): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of mixtape (Q1892995), street album (Q3975953), remix album (Q963099): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: album (Q482994) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of theme music (Q1193470), film song (Q93540236): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: has quality (P1552)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of instrumental music (Q639197), instrumental solo piece (Q21998559): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of madrigal (Q193217), recitative (Q202534), aria (Q178122), canticle (Q1033831): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of cantata (Q174873), church cantata (Q11499279), chorale cantata (Q2936565): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of Lied (Q216860), art song (Q4797274), mélodie (Q2737175): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of vise (Q3482281): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: genre (P136)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of overture (Q202287), concert overture (Q11565443): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of suite (Q203005), orchestral suite (Q11374147), partita (Q388383): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of waltz (Q8701407), concert waltz (Q1464124): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of march (Q211025), funeral march (Q1677377): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: form of creative work (P7937)
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of religious music (Q1065742), choral music (Q1076513), vocal music (Q685884): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: genre (P136)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of official music video (Q55960075): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: has quality (P1552)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of absence (Q19829125): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: subclass of (P279)
Replacement values: absence (Q19829125) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of male (Q6581097), female (Q6581072), girl (Q3031), boy (Q3010): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: sex or gender (P21)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of Holocaust victim (Q5883980): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: significant event (P793)
Replacement values: The Holocaust (Q2763) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of radio edit (Q624669): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: has quality (P1552)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of remix (Q214272): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: has quality (P1552)
Replacement values: audio track (Q7302866) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of yaoi (Q242488), yuri (Q320568): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: genre (P136)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of Christian (Q106039), Catholic (Q17549077), Muslim (Q47740), Jewish people (Q7325), Buddhist (Q6926246), Hindu (Q10090): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: religion or worldview (P140)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of encyclopedia (Q5292): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: genre (P136)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of oil painting (Q56676227), oil painting (Q174705): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: painting (Q3305213) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of musical agent (Q109802395): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of silent character (Q21561303): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property: narrative role (P5800)
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of entity (Q35120): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of dance (Q11639), folk dance (Q201022): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: type of dance (Q107357104) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of musical work (Q2188189), musical composition (Q207628): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: musical work/composition (Q105543609) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of episode (Q1983062): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of mass shooting in the United States (Q42915628): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: mass shooting (Q21480300) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of terrorism (Q7283), domestic terrorism (Q5889469): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: terrorist attack (Q2223653), domestic terrorist attack (Q112044283) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of video game company (Q112042224): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: video game developer (Q210167), video game publisher (Q1137109) (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
None of work (Q386724): value must not be any of the specified items.
Replacement property:
Replacement values: (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303).
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#none of, SPARQL
Property “subclass of (P279)” declared by target items of “instance of (P31): If [item A] has this property with value [item B], [item B] is required to have property “subclass of (P279)”. (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Exceptions can be specified using exception to constraint (P2303). Known exceptions: entity (Q35120)
List of violations of this constraint: Database reports/Constraint violations/P31#Target required claim, SPARQL, SPARQL (by value)
Pictogram voting comment.svg Multiple P31 claims lead to duplicate tuples
Multiple P31 claims are unnecessary in most cases with Wikimedia-related items. Consider facet of (P1269) instead of second P31 value. (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item # ?inspected ?itemLabel ?else WHERE { VALUES ?inspected { wd:Q4167836 wd:Q11266439 wd:Q17362920 } VALUES ?whitelistedCombinations { wd:Q4115189 wd:Q15397819 #placeholders } ?item wdt:P31 ?inspected . ?item wdt:P31 ?else FILTER (?else != ?inspected). MINUS { ?item wdt:P31 ?whitelistedCombinations . } # SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" } }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Multiple P31 claims lead to duplicate tuples
Pictogram voting comment.svg P31=samevalue and P279=samevalue
in most cases this is an oversight or item that needs update after child item(s) were added (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item # ?itemLabel ?class ?classLabel WHERE { ?item wdt:P31 ?class ; wdt:P279 ?class . MINUS { ?class wdt:P31?/wdt:P279* wd:Q17442446 } # any internal stuff FILTER (?class != wd:Q11173) FILTER (?class != wd:Q7187) FILTER (?class != wd:Q8054) FILTER (?class != wd:Q201448) FILTER (?class != wd:Q215980) FILTER (?class != wd:Q277338) FILTER (?class != wd:Q284416) FILTER (?class != wd:Q427087) # SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" } }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#P31=samevalue and P279=samevalue
Pictogram voting comment.svg P31=samevalue and P279=samevalue (indirect P279)
in most cases this is an oversight or item that needs update after child item(s) were added (Help)
Violations query: select ?item (count(*) as ?count) WHERE { ?class wdt:P31 ?item FILTER(?item NOT IN (wd:Q7187, wd:Q8054)). ?class wdt:P279/wdt:P279 ?item. } group by ?metaclass order by DESC(?count)
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#P31=samevalue and P279=samevalue (indirect P279)
Pictogram voting comment.svg Strange P31 link between parents in P279
(Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item (count(*) as ?count) WHERE { ?classC wdt:P279 ?item; wdt:P279 ?classB . ?classB wdt:P31 ?item. } GROUP BY ?item ORDER BY DESC(?count)
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Strange P31 link between parents in P279
Pictogram voting comment.svg Avoid P31 of P279 of Q5 (P106 or other properties should be created)
(Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P31/wdt:P279+ wd:Q5 }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Avoid P31 of P279 of Q5 (P106 or other properties should be created)
Pictogram voting comment.svg Second claim and unspecific
is most cases unspecific could be replaced with specific variant (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P31 ?claim1. ?item wdt:P31 ?claim2. FILTER(?claim1 = wd:Q95074) FILTER(?claim1 != ?claim2) }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Second claim and unspecific
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be human and possibly fictional
keep only one claim (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q5 . # real ?item wdt:P31/wdt:P279* wd:Q21070568 . # possibly fictional }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be human and possibly fictional
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be one thing and group of things
keep only one claim, split into several items: Q1880543, Q161678, Q232009 (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P31/wdt:P279* wd:Q15619176 . # one ?item wdt:P31/wdt:P279* wd:Q17519152 . # group }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be one thing and group of things
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be ?item P31 ?item
impossible claim or it should be a separate item (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P31 ?item }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be ?item P31 ?item
Pictogram voting comment.svg Cannot be an instance of an individual human
Can't be ?item wdt:P31/wdt:P31 wd:Q5. (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P31/wdt:P31 wd:Q5. }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Cannot be an instance of an individual human
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be instance of both human and occupation
Should not an instance of (P31) both a human (Q5) and an occupation (Q12737077). Consider using occupation (P106). (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?occupation wdt:P279*/wdt:P31+ wd:Q12737077 . ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q5 . ?item wdt:P31 ?occupation . } GROUP BY ?item
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be instance of both human and occupation
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be instance of both human and position
Should not be an instance of (P31) both a human (Q5) and an position (Q4164871). Consider using position held (P39). (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?position wdt:P279*/wdt:P31+ wd:Q4164871. ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q5 . ?item wdt:P31 ?position . } GROUP BY ?item
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be instance of both human and position
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be instance of song and single
Items should not be an instance of (P31) both a song (Q7366) and a single (Q134556); the release (Q2031291) (single) should be separate from the creative work (Q17537576) (song). Sitelinks should usually be attached to items about songs. Consider removing one statement (probably single (Q134556)), and creating a new item for the other entity. Songs and singles can be linked with tracklist (P658) and part of (P361). (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q7366. ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q134556. }
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be instance of song and single
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be instance of both fictional character and literary work.
Should not be an instance of (P31) both a fictional character (Q95074) and an literary work (Q7725634). This is usually caused by conflation between a literary work and the main character that it is named after. (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item (wdt:P31/(wdt:P279*)) wd:Q95074, wd:Q7725634. } GROUP BY ?item
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be instance of both fictional character and literary work.
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be instance of both fictional character and narrative.
Should not be an instance of (P31) both a fictional character (Q95074) and an narrative (Q1318295). This is usually caused by conflation between a narrative and the main character that it is named after. (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item (wdt:P31/(wdt:P279*)) wd:Q95074, wd:Q1318295. } GROUP BY ?item
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be instance of both fictional character and narrative.
Pictogram voting comment.svg Can't be instance of both a disambiguation page and a human.
Should not be an instance of (P31) both a Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410) and a human (Q5). This can be caused caused by an incorrect merge or a sitelink that is attached to a wrong item. (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item WHERE { ?item (wdt:P31/(wdt:P279*)) wd:Q4167410, wd:Q5. } GROUP BY ?item
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Can't be instance of both a disambiguation page and a human.
Pictogram voting comment.svg should have P31=category
TODO: add P31 (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item ?n { hint:Query hint:optimizer "None". ?item wikibase:statements 0 . [] schema:about ?item ; schema:name ?n ; schema:isPartOf ?part . ?part wikibase:wikiGroup "wikipedia". FILTER( strstarts(?n , "Category:") ) } LIMIT 100
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#should have P31=category
Pictogram voting comment.svg should have P31=template
TODO: add P31 (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item ?n { hint:Query hint:optimizer "None". ?item wikibase:statements 0 . [] schema:about ?item ; schema:name ?n . FILTER( strstarts(?n , "Template:") ) } LIMIT 100
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#should have P31=template
Pictogram voting comment.svg should have P31=module
TODO: add P31 (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item ?n { hint:Query hint:optimizer "None". ?item wikibase:statements 0 . [] schema:about ?item ; schema:name ?n . FILTER( strstarts(?n , "Module:") ) FILTER( !strstarts(?n, "Module:zh/data") ) FILTER( !strstarts(?n, "Module:Zh/data") ) } LIMIT 100
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#should have P31=module
Pictogram voting comment.svg should have P31=portal
TODO: add P31 (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item ?n { hint:Query hint:optimizer "None". ?item wikibase:statements 0 . [] schema:about ?item ; schema:name ?n . FILTER( strstarts(?n , "Portal:") ) } LIMIT 100
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#should have P31=portal
Pictogram voting comment.svg default P31 values for frwiki (claimless items)
TODO: add P31 (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item ?n ?pref ?inst WHERE { VALUES ( ?pref ?inst ) { ( "Modèle:" wd:Q11266439 ) ( "Module:" wd:Q15184295 ) ( "Catégorie:" wd:Q4167836 ) ( "Projet:" wd:Q14204246 ) ( "Wikipédia:" wd:Q14204246 ) ( "Aide:" wd:Q56005592 ) ( "Liste de" wd:Q13406463 ) ( "Glossaire d" wd:Q859161 ) ( "Vocabulaire d" wd:Q859161 ) } ?item wikibase:statements 0 . [] schema:about ?item ; schema:isPartOf <https://fr.wikipedia.org/> ; schema:name ?n . FILTER( strstarts(?n , ?pref) ) } LIMIT 1000
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#default P31 values for frwiki (claimless items)
Pictogram voting comment.svg default P31 values for eswiki (claimless items)
TODO: add P31 (Help)
Violations query: SELECT ?item ?n ?pref ?inst WHERE { VALUES ( ?pref ?inst ) { ( "Plantilla:" wd:Q11266439 ) ( "Módulo:" wd:Q15184295 ) ( "Categoría:" wd:Q4167836 ) ( "Wikipedia:" wd:Q14204246 ) ( "Anexo:" wd:Q13406463 ) } ?item wikibase:statements 0 . [] schema:about ?item ; schema:isPartOf <https://es.wikipedia.org/> ; schema:name ?n . FILTER( strstarts(?n , ?pref) ) } LIMIT 1000
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#default P31 values for eswiki (claimless items)
Pictogram voting comment.svg use is an individual of taxon (P10241) to identify taxon
Where the item is an individual organism, is an individual of taxon (P10241) should be used to identify its taxon, e.g. species. (Help)
Violations query: SELECT DISTINCT ?item ?itemLabel WHERE { ?item wdt:P31/wdt:P279* wd:Q110224119 . ?item wdt:P31 ?taxon . ?taxon wdt:P31 wd:Q16521 . SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en" . } }
List of this constraint violations: [[Wikidata:Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#use is an individual of taxon (P10241) to identify taxon|Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#use is an individual of taxon (P10241) to identify taxon]]
Pictogram voting comment.svg Redundant instance of statement
should not be instance of a superclass and one of its subclass. When an item have 2 P31 statements of a class together with a statement to one of its direct subclass (Help)
Violations query: select ?item ?a ?b { ?item wdt:P31 ?a, ?b . ?a wdt:P279 ?b . } limit 3000
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P31#Redundant instance of statement
Value Q5 (Q395685) will be automatically replaced to value human (Q5).
Testing: TODO list

Value saint (Q43115) will be automatically replaced to value saint (Q43115) and moved to canonization status (P411) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value Roman Catholic saint (Q3464126) will be automatically replaced to value Roman Catholic saint (Q3464126) and moved to canonization status (P411) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value female (Q6581072) will be automatically replaced to value female (Q6581072) and moved to sex or gender (P21) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value woman (Q467) will be automatically replaced to value female (Q6581072) and moved to sex or gender (P21) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value male (Q6581097) will be automatically replaced to value male (Q6581097) and moved to sex or gender (P21) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value man (Q8441) will be automatically replaced to value male (Q6581097) and moved to sex or gender (P21) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value actor (Q33999) will be automatically replaced to value actor (Q33999) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value researcher (Q1650915) will be automatically replaced to value researcher (Q1650915) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value air pollution (Q131123) will be automatically replaced to value air pollution (Q131123) and moved to facet of (P1269) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value video artist (Q18216771) will be automatically replaced to value video artist (Q18216771) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value photographer (Q33231) will be automatically replaced to value photographer (Q33231) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value artist (Q483501) will be automatically replaced to value artist (Q483501) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value poet (Q49757) will be automatically replaced to value poet (Q49757) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value writer (Q36180) will be automatically replaced to value writer (Q36180) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value Formula One driver (Q10841764) will be automatically replaced to value Formula One driver (Q10841764) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value baseball player (Q10871364) will be automatically replaced to value baseball player (Q10871364) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value baseball player-managers (Q55296227) will be automatically replaced to value baseball player-managers (Q55296227) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value baseball manager (Q1186921) will be automatically replaced to value baseball manager (Q1186921) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value lawyer (Q40348) will be automatically replaced to value lawyer (Q40348) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value chess player (Q10873124) will be automatically replaced to value chess player (Q10873124) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value design engineer (Q1779650) will be automatically replaced to value design engineer (Q1779650) and moved to occupation (P106) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value children's and youth literature (Q11163999) will be automatically replaced to value children's and youth literature (Q11163999) and moved to genre (P136) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value article (Q103184) will be automatically replaced to value article (Q191067).
Testing: TODO list

Value list of moons of Jupiter (Q1946) will be automatically replaced to value moon of Jupiter (Q61702557).
Testing: TODO list

Value Holocaust survivor (Q12409870) will be automatically replaced to value Holocaust survivor (Q12409870) and moved to subject has role (P2868) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value protagonist (Q215972) will be automatically replaced to value protagonist (Q215972) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value unseen character (Q526231) will be automatically replaced to value unseen character (Q526231) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value antagonist (Q245204) will be automatically replaced to value antagonist (Q245204) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value main antagonist (Q55712911) will be automatically replaced to value main antagonist (Q55712911) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value supporting character (Q2595584) will be automatically replaced to value supporting character (Q2595584) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value main character (Q12317360) will be automatically replaced to value main character (Q12317360) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value minor character (Q27623618) will be automatically replaced to value minor character (Q27623618) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value title character (Q3246821) will be automatically replaced to value title character (Q3246821) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value secondary antagonist (Q105078199) will be automatically replaced to value secondary antagonist (Q105078199) and moved to narrative role (P5800) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value hero (Q162244) will be automatically replaced to value hero (Q162244) and moved to character type (P9071) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value villain (Q290691) will be automatically replaced to value villain (Q290691) and moved to character type (P9071) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value supervillain (Q6498903) will be automatically replaced to value supervillain (Q6498903) and moved to character type (P9071) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value antihero (Q110910) will be automatically replaced to value antihero (Q110910) and moved to character type (P9071) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value antivillain (Q65622867) will be automatically replaced to value antivillain (Q65622867) and moved to character type (P9071) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value superhero (Q188784) will be automatically replaced to value unseen character (Q526231) and moved to character type (P9071) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value superhero (Q188784) will be automatically replaced to value unseen character (Q526231) and moved to character type (P9071) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value josei (Q503106) will be automatically replaced to value josei (Q503106) and moved to intended public (P2360) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value shōjo (Q242492) will be automatically replaced to value shōjo (Q242492) and moved to intended public (P2360) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value children's anime and manga (Q478804) will be automatically replaced to value children's anime and manga (Q478804) and moved to intended public (P2360) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value shōnen (Q231302) will be automatically replaced to value shōnen (Q231302) and moved to intended public (P2360) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value seinen (Q237338) will be automatically replaced to value seinen (Q237338) and moved to intended public (P2360) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value Holocaust victim (Q5883980) will be automatically replaced to value The Holocaust (Q2763) and moved to significant event (P793) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value podcasting (Q20899) will be automatically replaced to value podcast (Q24634210).
Testing: TODO list

Value audio podcast (Q24633474) will be automatically replaced to value podcast (Q24634210).
Testing: TODO list

Value video podcast (Q3276244) will be automatically replaced to value podcast (Q24634210).
Testing: TODO list

Value card game video game (Q29471320) will be automatically replaced to value video game (Q7889).
Testing: TODO list

Value terrorism (Q7283) will be automatically replaced to value terrorist attack (Q2223653).
Testing: TODO list

Value domestic terrorism (Q5889469) will be automatically replaced to value domestic terrorist attack (Q112044283).
Testing: TODO list

Value episodic video game (Q5383567) will be automatically replaced to value video game episode (Q90181054).
Testing: TODO list

This property is being used by:

Please notify projects that use this property before big changes (renaming, deletion, merge with another property, etc.)

Usage note[edit]

Usage is detailed in Help:Basic membership properties.

Discussion[edit]

Is/was a[edit]

If I understand correctly, at some point we'll have a way to use qualifiers to specify the time that any attribute was held, so wouldn't it make sense to change the label of this to "is/was a"? --Yair rand (talk) 07:11, 5 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

I've started a discussion about this property here. --Kolja21 (talk) 08:55, 5 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
This is meant to be used in a very limited way for statements we want to make for which a property is inappropriate. For example, "<Canada> is a <country>". It might be worth re-labelling the property to "is an instance of" (so, "<Canada> is an instance of <country>". It is not meant for wide-spread use. Note that Property:P107 exists for a sub-set of this property (stating that the subject is an instance of "person", "name", "organisation", "event", "work", "term" or "place"), and should be used instead of this property for those. James F. (talk) 21:44, 18 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Usage[edit]

How is this supposed to be used? Should it be used only for describing an item in it's entirety (Marie Curie "is a" person) or describing every aspect of it (Marie Curie "is a" person, spouse, mother, child, woman, Nobel winner, chemist,...)  – The preceding unsigned comment was added by Janjko (talk • contribs).

Usage is detailed in Help:Basic_membership_properties.

Not localizable[edit]

This property is not very easy to translate/localize. For languages that have genders (e.g. German), there is no one translation for "one". I also share the concerns of Janjko above. Jon Harald Søby (talk) 18:47, 5 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

+1 the Chinese shows "分类" (means "Category" in English), but a apparently "instance_of" is quite different from "Category" and is a common mistake to confuse them two. Xinbenlv (talk) 00:59, 22 March 2018 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Problem Localizing to Persian[edit]

"is a" is in Persian "می‌باشد" and the verbs are coming in Persian after the nouns.

so the sentence like is a sovereign state will be

کشور مستقل می‌باشد

and not

می‌باشد کشور مستقل

how can we implement these kind of staffs. or it is not a right place! --Pouyana (talk) 20:01, 7 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

This particular property may need to be rethought, but for this kind of problem, I would think the best solution would be to find a phrase it so that word order is ok. If that is not possible, you may want to leave a message on Wikidata:Contact the development team. Cheers. --Zolo (talk) 06:30, 8 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Perhaps renaming the property "type" or another noun would help. -- Ypnypn (talk) 21:24, 8 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
You don't need an exact translation on word-level, you can use a phrase but that phrase must be unique and usable in the property parser function. Well basically, you don't want a very long phrase as it is cumbersome to type. See m:Wikidata/Notes/Inclusion syntax v0.3. Jeblad (talk) 21:54, 8 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Semantical nonsense[edit]

The way this property is used seems like nonsense. Where we mean that the item is a republic, we should use property "state system". Where the item is a person and we tell Wikidata that this person is a scientist, we should use propert "occupation". And so on. Wizardist (talk) 20:56, 8 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

I think this is an eseencial property. It just filters items in the crudest way. --NaBUru38 (talk) 21:18, 8 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
It's meant to be used for "person" or "place" or something. Anything more detailed goes in other properties. -- Ypnypn (talk) 21:25, 8 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
This property is for define the type of the item. In your first example is a State, in the second one is a person. --β16 - (talk) 22:01, 8 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Then maybe we call this property a normal noun? Like "type"? Wizardist (talk) 03:41, 9 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Yes probably, see Wikidata:Property_proposal#Main_type_of_item_.28entity.29_.2F_Art_des_Objekts_.2F_Type_principal and Wikidata_talk:Property_proposal#is_a. --Zolo (talk) 08:34, 9 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
What if we use this property for the "entities" of GND (person, name, corporate body, event, work, term, place)? --Sannita - not just another it.wiki sysop 12:43, 9 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
+1. Imho "main types of items" is the better choise. This seems to be the original concept of Wikidata:Infoboxes task force. --ThorstenX1 (talk) 21:56, 10 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
+1 to rename to 'type' or 'itemtype', or something similar with much more specific meaning than 'is a'. Now we can have object.GetType() :) --Yurik (talk) 10:36, 13 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
There is now Property:P107 that is better defined that this one - though implementation details still remain to be worked out. I think items using this property should be changed so that they use more specific property (like Property:P106 and Property:P107) and then this property can be deleted.

Prevent or avoid "is a"[edit]

I think this property should never be used for people. A person could be anything. "Occupation", "Title", "sex", etc, are more specific. Is it possible to prevent it from beeing used for main type p?

Everytime a more specific property is available "is a" should be avoided. Organisations and works, the "type" property might be used instead.

A similar vague property, suggested by the wikidata developers, was "is in", for example for places, but until now, more specific properties (e.g. "continent") has been used. Mange01 (talk) 22:46, 14 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

This property should really be deleted all together. There is a entity type property (the name is under discussion, vote on the talk page), that should specify person/object/event/etc. --Yurik (talk) 22:51, 14 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
I'm agree to delete this property (is too much generic), but it is very useful for astronomic object, to distinguish stars, planets, satellites, galaxies... For example templates of Italian Wikipedia (astronomical object and non stellar objects), need a parameter to distinguish the different types of objects managed by them. Is it possible, after discussion, to undelete the property astronomical object? Its deletion was caused for the existence of this property! --Paperoastro (talk) 08:51, 16 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Delete or rename[edit]

{{delete|This property does not help with the classification of the entities in wikidata because its meaning is too ambiguous. The Property:P107 (entity type) has a much more precise meaning and follows a well established classification scheme by only allowing specific values: person, organization, event, work, term, and place. All items with this property should be changed (by a bot?) before deleting. --Yurik (talk) 05:13, 16 February 2013 (UTC)}}Reply[reply]

(Please see description in the box above, and comment here)

Please don't put deletion template to a talk page, as talk pages are not to be deleted. This template is for deletions that are not likely to be questioned. You should list the property page itself on RfD where it may be discussed. Bináris (talk) 16:40, 16 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

The aim of this property is to reflect relationships in an ontology, typically a hierarchical system such as a library classification system, making it possible for computers to inteprete knowledge base. But there are many alternative ontologies and competing standards. So I think that it should be supplemented by several of ontology specific properties. We may start with changing name of P31 from "is a" to "[is an ]instance of (GND entity)" or "GND ontology instance of". See http://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd# for an authoritative source. A (temporary?) problem is that some of the GND entities have no Wikipedia article yet, and it is not allowed to created the item at Wikidata. (A similar discussion is ongoing at Property talk:P107 - "Wikidata main type of item"="GND ontology high level entity".) Mange01 (talk) 20:25, 17 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
 Oppose We renamed P107 already a couple of times. Now to start mixing different ways of classification can't work. --Kolja21 (talk) 21:33, 17 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
I think is-a is a “good“ property, we just have to invoke some rules. E.g. I added the property is-a elementary particle and is-a fermion to Q2225 (electron). I think this is helpful for queries in future like „List all elementary particles“ or „List all fermions“ etc.
I heard from a thing called „InstanceOfSnack“. I don't really understand the difference between this instance and the is-a-property. Is it only a technical difference?
We should invoke the rule “If there exists a more specific relation property than is-a, this specific relation property must be used“. Example: Marie Curie is-a mother and is-a spouse. But instead of using these properties we should use Marie Curie is-mother-of/father-of (Property:P40) Irène Curie and is-spouse-of (Property:P26) Pierre Curie.
The properties itself then get the generalized property: is-mother-of is-a is-a or something like that (if technical possible).
In general this “is-a“ properties will lead to the same insane discussions and problems what we all face for categories in the Wikipedia. Because is-a is nothing else than categorisation.--Svebert (talk) 11:07, 14 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

While everyone else debates more important things...[edit]

I've renamed this to "is a(n)", since sometimes this was causing grammatically incorrect phrasings (e.g. "is a asteroid"). — PinkAmpers&(Je vous invite à me parler) 02:53, 20 February 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

A related property[edit]

is a : instance :: generalization : class. See Property_talk:P279 for more. Emw (talk) 02:18, 14 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Hierarchy[edit]

I added is-an elementary particle and is-a lepton to electron. But every lepton is an elementary particle. Do we have to consider such things? Meaning one adds only the most specific group and by back-tracing one gets the full hierarchy electron->lepton->elementary particle->concept in physics->...--Svebert (talk) 11:36, 14 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

A short reply without writing a history of the debate about P31/P107/etc: One level of "hierarchy" is enough. Espeso (talk) 15:02, 14 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
The deepest I suggest, right?
Is there some template or comparable to define such “rules“ for a property?--Svebert (talk) 15:45, 14 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Yes, the deepest.
No, there are no (extended) templates describing properties. Some of the simpler properties have the template row from WD:P copied to the property talk page. But with this particular property, any attempt to formalize some usage would probably be met with resistance by... someone else who favors a different property. My own opinion is that since this is a wiki, and barely starting at that, let competition among properties prevail and see what happens. Espeso (talk) 17:11, 14 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

is a -> instance of[edit]

This property's current description is "this item is an instance of this other item". The distinction between an instance and a class is an important idea that has meaning in not only Semantic Web languages from the W3C like RDFS and OWL, but also in philosophy, software modeling languages like UML, and languages used in AI like CycL. All of those languages have two separate relations for defining that an instance is an element of a class and that a class is an element of a class. The latest draft of the Wikidata data model even separates the two membership relations into 'InstanceOfSnak' and 'SubclassOfSnak'.

Given that built-in support for 'InstanceOfSnak' and 'SubclassOfSnak' isn't coming soon -- and may never come -- it seems like the next best option is to use two different entries in the Property namespace to act as corresponding membership relations. A new property -- P279 -- exists specifically for 'subclass of' relations. However, the current name of this property is ambiguous: does 'is a' mean 'instance of' like it does in the popular CycL language for structured data, or does it mean both 'instance of' and 'subclass of'? Because of that and the reasons outlined above, I think it would be best have two properties to describe the two different kinds of membership relations, and change the name of this property to 'instance of'. What are others' thoughts? Emw (talk) 22:52, 16 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

 Support--Svebert (talk) 23:31, 16 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Yes. Espeso (talk) 01:53, 17 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
 Support, "is a" is ambiguous and likely to be misused --Stevenliuyi (talk) 02:21, 17 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Pictogram voting comment.svg Comment  Oppose at this moment. Frist: In language use "is a" means both, instance and subclass. I've a problem with the meaning (in this case) of "instance". In programming an instance would be _one_ object of an (sub)class, for example the "netbook Thinkpad x123 of person Xyz" would be an instance, "Thinkpad x123" itself would be a subclass of netbook, netbook an subclass of computer. But actually - as I understand - you mean with an instance only the "Thinkpad x123" as instance of netbook, or not? Even if in practice you can't create another subclass of "Thinkpad x123", in theory it would be possible. In Wikipedia we mostly describe only subclasses, but sometimes also an instance. I've an similar idea posted in the GND property P107. Best regards, --#Reaper (talk) 12:53, 17 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
"Instance" has the same underlying meaning in programming, philosophy, and knowledge representation. To answer your question, if "Thinkpad x123" was a kind of computer, then it would not be an instance; it would be a class. All articles about particular people, places, organizations, events and other unique, particular things are about instances, not classes. While I haven't researched it, I would guess that the proportion of Wikipedia articles for instances is not overwhelmingly different than that for classes.
Whether one thinks this property should be called "is a" or "instance of" -- and whether "subclass of" (P279) should exist -- depends on whether one thinks that W3C standards for describing structured data are worth applying to Wikidata. I think it would be good for Wikipedia and the wider Semantic Web if Wikidata used widely accepted, standards-based properties for these kinds of important relations. Emw (talk) 14:06, 17 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Maybe we could work with qualifiers? Keep it "is a" and add one of the two qualifiers "instance of" and "subclass of". In this way, we don´t have to delete lots of those 32.403 statements where "is a" is used so far. --Goldzahn (talk) 17:01, 17 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Or equivalent: Add a new property called “is class“ with a boolean value.
I checked some of the items using is-a and I didn't find any wrong usage. All is-a are used as “instance-of“ (i checkd about 10 items)--Svebert (talk) 21:04, 17 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Reaper, think of it this way. A class is the equivalent of a set in mathematics. An instance is the equivalent of a set element. Just as in mathematics there is the "subset" concept and the "element of" concept which mean different things, so too we need to have "subclass of" (subset) and "instance of" (element). They cannot be one property because they mean different things. Silver hr (talk) 01:31, 18 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Good explanation, btw. --DixonD (talk) 08:32, 19 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
I thought over about it these days, but I'm not sure and clear with everything. (Note: My contra was meant as an "stop, wait a moment", not as a real contra.) To a possible second property (about which I already thought about, too): I think we should use less properties, so I would say no to this idea. (@Silver hr: Thanks for your explanation, but I'm sorry that mathematics is not my wold, so I've to stay with programming terms. ;) I hope the rest gets along with it..)
I would like to discuss some examples, because till now I'm not really sure if we could really describe the whole world with subclasses and instances. An example that I've been thinking about: Is the video game Half-Life (or software at all) an instance of "video game" - or a subclass? If it is (as I would say) a instance, what would then a mod (e.g. GMod in past) for this game would be? Of course a "mod" (also in order of "is a"), but it should also be a part of the game. That means in order of "instance of" it would be an instance of Half-Life too. What would be "multiple inheritance" (yeah ;)), but it would be then an instance of an instance..? How to solve something like this? (I think I got another example, but now I can't remember..) I hope that I could describe good enough what I mean (and sorry for my bad English..). Best greetings, --#Reaper (talk) 20:48, 19 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
  • see en:Class (computer programming) and en:Instance (computer science). describe the whole world with subclasses and instances I don´t see that too. I would say, that should depend on how to use the properties p31 and p279. In my view both properties could be used for internal use, for example quality management. At the moment, someone could say that the value of the "place of birth" (p19) is the color yellow. Together with "main type" (p107) we could build a system, that gives a warning to the editor if the value of the "place of birth" is not a "place"-type and not an "instance of", lets say municipality (type of administrative division (p132)) or a class in which a municipality is a "subclass of" (p279). --Goldzahn (talk) 21:08, 19 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
  • Reaper, that's a great point. Because video games, software, books, and other such items can have instances -- e.g. a video game on a shelf, an installation of a operating system or web browser, a book in a person's hand -- I think they're best considered to be classes, and not instances. Instances are items with a unique location in space and time. Reliably-sourced classifications that use these kinds of relations, like The Software Ontology, refer to items like Java and operating system as classes, and use the 'subclass of' (really, rdfs:subClassOf) relation to define their membership in other classes like 'programming language' and 'software'. (P.S., I think your English is very understandable.) Emw (talk) 03:51, 20 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
The thing that helped me better understand ontological concepts is experimenting in Protege OWL, a visual editor for OWL ontologies. Note that OWL has more features than Wikidata has or will have according to current plans. There's a tutorial for it here, and even if you're not interested in Protege or OWL, the tutorial has a nice visual representation of instances, classes and properties somewhere in the first few pages.
Also, to be able to describe the whole world in a structured way, another essential property we would need is "has part", which I think would solve the problem posed by your mod example.
Silver hr (talk) 23:17, 20 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Thanks for your answers and sorry for my late answer. I though about my example "mod of a game" from above and about Emw's answer. And I came to the result, that we should use "instance of" for software and all other digital or replicable things (like films, books, ..). But at first something general (or for this example): "GMod is a mod (of Half-Life)", but also "GMod is an instance of Half-Life" according to my last post (according to programing structure), but for sure not the other way around: It's not "GMod is a Half-Life". So "is an instance of" is on this side more than "is a". We maybe should think about this.
Now let me explain my reasons for my decision why software should be an instance: The point which I mentioned just, GMod is a mod. In order of language use we wouldn't say that "GMod is a Half-Life". The other reason is, that - likewise also in language use - a game, software, film or book would never be a subclass of something. A film, book and also software would always be an single item, even if it's nothing you could touch. I'm currently not sure how we could solve the problem (in general) that something is a "mod of" something, maybe with "has part" mentioned above. But otherwise "subclass of" would break the language use in a really hard way, and also would disrupt all other real statements like "is subclass of subclass".
But I'm also not sure what to do with like "Netbook X31" as a product, not as a single, touchable object. Hmm.. Maybe an other property for this..? And sorry, I haven't looked at the links posted above, maybe later when I've more time. (And English isn't so easy for me... makes it more difficult to read and understand.)
I always get confused when I think about this.. ;) Best regards, --#Reaper (talk) 22:06, 27 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
GMod is a part of Half-Life, since recent :) Infovarius (talk) 10:07, 28 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Yes, I know this new item, but this statement would be wrong. (Question: is "has part" and "is part of" the same? I think its the opposite, but I can't translate "has part" (it seems untranslatable, but I think I know what it means).) It's more like "GMod uses Half-Life" or similar. (A map or level would be a part of Half-Life.) --#Reaper (talk) 17:51, 28 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
First of all, "Netbook X31" would be a class, and probably a subclass of "netbook". A particular physical product identified by a serial number would be an instance of "Netbook X31". As for the relation between GMod and Half-life, I'd put it this way (just an example, doesn't necessarily correspond to Wikidata items). "GMod version x" instance of "GMod", "GMod" subclass of "mod", "GMod" modifies "Half-Life".
The reason I was originally thinking in terms of a "has part" property is because you could describe the two in the following way. "Half-Life" has part "file hl1", "Half-Life" has part "file hl2", ..., "GMod" has part "file hl1", "GMod" has part "file gmod1", ..., but I'm not sure how appropriate that would be for Wikidata.
As to the difference between "has part" and "(is) part of", they are inverses. If A has part B, then B is part of A. Also, there is now some good documentation for the differences between "instance of", "subclass of" and "part of" here, I recommend reading it.
Silver hr (talk) 00:04, 31 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
 Support Silver hr (talk) 01:31, 18 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
 Support --Don-kun (talk) 19:28, 19 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
 Support Yes, I believe this and the "subclass" property represent the clearest distinction yet between the two. Shawn in Montreal (talk) 14:58, 21 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
 Support Yes, this is what was intended when I created the Property; I chose the simpler 'is a' language after discussion with fellow editors suggested that it was better for them, but of course I'm very happy for it to be wider. James F. (talk) 10:59, 13 April 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

"это" вместо "является одним из"[edit]

Вернул название "это" вместо "является одним из", т. к. второй вариант требует после себя родительного падежа, а у нас айтемы названы в именительном. А то получается "Африка является одним из континент". — Ivan A. Krestinin (talk) 17:56, 20 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Достаточно было поставить двоеточие в конце :) На самом деле "это" - слишком неопределённое и, возможно, не совсем подходит, надо подумать. --Infovarius (talk) 20:19, 21 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Proposal: establish rdf:type as the basis for this property[edit]

From the discussion above, there seems to be general agreement that "instance of" is a better name for this property than "is a". This makes the property less ambiguous, and has the benefit of bringing it closer in line with common standards for how to represent knowledge in a structured way. To further that end, I think it would be a good idea to establish the RDF 'type' property -- rdf:type -- as the basis for this property. RDF is the foundation of the W3C's recommendation for a language of the Semantic Web. To my understanding rdf:type has all the semantics that this property has. This would help resolve questions like "what does this property mean?", "what is an instance?", etc. It would also make this property, and thus Wikidata as a whole, more interoperable with the rest of the Semantic Web. Emw (talk) 04:05, 22 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

 Support, at least until m:Wikidata/Data_model#InstanceOfSnak gets implemented. Silver hr (talk) 18:25, 22 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
 Support Tpt (talk) 14:04, 23 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Pictogram voting question.svg Question What are you proposing here; a new property, renaming of this property or something else? --Faux (talk) 14:55, 23 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
  • This proposal isn't about a new property or renaming this property, it's about clarifying the nature of this property. Based on the general agreement from the is a -> instance of discussion above, this property already behaves like rdf:type. This proposal would add rdf:type to the 'Source' field at the top of this page, and establish a mapping between this property and that property from the RDFS W3C recommendation. Emw (talk) 13:21, 24 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

I've gone ahead and made the proposed change (diff). Emw (talk) 12:06, 30 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Proposal: establish rdf:type as the name for this property[edit]

If it now has the semantics of rdf:type, then use that as the name. Andrea Shan (talk) 03:20, 19 November 2014 (UTC)Reply[reply]

  • Pictogram voting comment.svg Comment User:Emw's "would make this property [...] more interoperable with the rest of the Semantic Web" applies here too. The proposal was triggered by User:Jeblad's statement at Wikidata:Project_chat#Preparing_for_.22statements_on_properties.22 "the statements (and the properties we are using to formulate them) are not grounded in external common concepts from semantic data", which might have been an error, but having the same names, reduces the likelihood for future misunderstandings about the semantics, for those that understand RDF and OWL. Andrea Shan (talk) 03:20, 19 November 2014 (UTC)Reply[reply]
  • Pictogram voting comment.svg Comment. Labeling this property rdf:type would make the mapping clearer, but at the cost of making on-wiki references to it too technical and awkward. rdf:type is already an alias of this property, so it appears prominently on Property:P31, and the mapping of instance of to rdf:type is made clear in the Wikidata RDF export, the paper Introducing Wikidata to the Linked Data Web, and in the 'Source' parameter currently atop this Talk page.
The label "rdf:type" is also unfortunate because it was cast before the Semantic Web talked in terms of classes and instances. The labels "instance of" and "subclass of" make the ontological status of the subject clear. "Instance of" is also the label used for this property in the Relation Ontology, which is based on the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), the most widely-used upper ontology in the sciences. The current names of P31 and P279 also closely align with those in the originally proposed Wikidata data model, InstanceOfSnak and SubclassOfSnak.
That said, I do think more could be done to make the mapping of instance of to rdf:type even clearer. Perhaps appending "Mapped to rdf:type" or "Has semantics of rdf:type" to the property description would be good. And as User:Jeblad mentions in the linked Project chat discussion, we do need a better machine-readable way to declare that one property is mapped to another. (Technical cavaet: we should make it clear that such a way would not use OWL semantics, because built-in vocabulary like rdf:type cannot be the object of a property in any OWL 2 DL ontology.) Emw (talk) 14:03, 19 November 2014 (UTC)Reply[reply]
I agree with Emw - please don't. "rdf:type" is very opaque to anyone who doesn't understand RDF modelling. Making it clear that this is "rdf:type" for someone who wants to think of it that way is fine, but renaming it will confuse everyone else... Andrew Gray (talk) 17:57, 19 November 2014 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Please do not rename. This essential information must be readily understandable to anyne not familiar with ontology. The alias and the field "Source" above do make it clear to more technical people. -- LaddΩ chat ;) 02:45, 20 November 2014 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Renaming does not solve the grounding problem, but the present solution isn't satisfactory either. And please avoid using the modeling of snaks as an argument for what to call the properties, those are from the code domain and doesn't belong here. Jeblad (talk) 02:02, 23 November 2014 (UTC)Reply[reply]

German translation of this property[edit]

Zur Zeit heißt diese Eigenschaft "ist eine Instanz von", im Englischen lediglich "instance of". Was haltet ihr davon die deutsche Übersetzung auf "Instanz von" zu kürzen? Wie ist hier generell die Devise? --Faux (talk) 14:59, 23 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Das Problem ist, dass es gar keine "Instanz" ist. Die gibt es nämlich nur bei Gericht/Behörden. Im Allgemeinen würde man es wohl übersetzen "ist ein Beispiel für" oder "ist ein Fall von" oder den Instance-Quatsch ganz weglassen: "ist ein". -- HvW (talk) 17:25, 26 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Das stimmt so nicht, das es Instanzen nur bei Behörden gäbe; die gibt es auch in der Informatik (de:Instanz (Informatik)), worauf sich der Begriff hier auch bezieht. "Ist ein" enthält gerade die Doppeldeutigkeit die man vermeiden will: es kann sich sowohl auf konkrete Exemplare (Snoopy ist ein Hund) als auch auf Unterbegriffe (Hund ist ein Säugetier) beziehen kann, was zwei vollkommen verschiedene Sachen sind. --Mps (talk) 19:19, 26 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Ich hab’s jetzt wieder auf „Instanz von“ reverted, war „ist ein(e)“ (was ja eben so uneindeutig ist). Was haltet ihr von „Ausprägung“? --DSGalaktos (talk) 22:18, 8 December 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Gut, dass neben ist eine Auspraegung von jetzt auch das verstaendlichere ist ein Exemplar von steht.
Aber Mitglied einer Gruppe ist missverstaendlich: Zum Beispiel ist Sigmar Gabriel (Q160902) Mitglied der Gruppe SPD Bundestag fraction (Q2207512), aber dieser Zusammenhang darf gerade nicht mit instance of (P31) modelliert werden. Ich wuerde also die Gruppe aus der deutschen Beschreibung gern loeschen. -- Juergen 62.143.196.71 12:07, 10 January 2016 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Proposal regarding P107 and P31[edit]

Please see Wikidata_talk:Property_proposal#Proposal:_use_GND_main_type_.28P107.29_classifications_as_initial_classifications_for_P31; comments welcome. Emw (talk) 20:47, 24 March 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

The definition of 'instance' and 'class'[edit]

There's an active discussion at Help_talk:Basic_membership_properties#Proposition_of_definition about the definitions of 'instance' and 'class' that's relevant to this property. Input is welcome! Emw (talk) 02:08, 19 April 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Nombre en español[edit]

Aunque no me acaba de convencer (¡ojalá alguien encuentre uno mejor!) he cambiado el nombre en español de esta propiedad a «ejemplar de», porque «instancia de» es un falso amigo como una casa. Instancia en español es jerga administrativa que significa varias cosas (memorial, solicitud, nivel de la administración, institución...) pero nada de lo que se quería decir aquí. --Rondador 13:08, 19 April 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

instance of terms[edit]

Hi there,
how to handle with terms and "instance of"? I used sometimes "instance of term" for words like "physics" or "math" or similar, top-level items in a hierarchy. But someone has changed it to "subclass of" what is wrong in my opinion, because it indicates the word/item would be a subtype of term, which it isn't it. In the sense of terms a word could only be a instance. Of course, the using it this way is a redundant to "GND=term", but it would be a good statement to say "there is nothing else to describe this item". What do you think? (This is similar/the same as the problem with "profession", which has this been discussed somewhere. (But where?)) --#Reaper (talk) 11:14, 27 April 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Instance of + Subclass[edit]

If A is an instance of B, which is a subclass of C, it can be inferred that A is also an instance of C. Should this be explicitly added or not?

Examples:

Which one is the correct way? --DSGalaktos (talk)

Hi. You should only add the lowest item of the hierarchy. So "mobile operating system" as single value would be correct, the same for "city with millions of inhabitants". (They might be only sometimes exceptions, but don't be afraid, the lowest item would ok and could be checked easily.) Greetings, --#Reaper (talk) 13:25, 27 April 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
An attribute with "city with millions of inhabitants" seems stupid to me ... city is a static value while the number of inhabitants is not. That number should be a value. GerardM (talk) 13:12, 6 May 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
Yes, we should probably have guidelines to prevent "instance of city with millions of inhabitants", but not sure how. "City" does not seem very useful either as it is a rather fuzzy word. For Portro Algera, I think it should be an instance of municipality of Brazil (and perhaps also an "instance of state capital" though that seems rather odd to me). --Zolo (talk) 13:59, 6 May 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
I would have thought that Windows Phone 7.x (Q1854343) is a subclass of mobile operating system (Q920890), and the instances would be the actual installed OS on a given phone. Installations are instances. Danrok (talk) 14:25, 30 May 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
  • Actually we handle software as an instance, because a (digital) copy (what an installation would be) would be.. um.. a bit fuzzy and "useless". (A computer is a "copy machine", everything is copied there.) --#Reaper (talk) 17:03, 2 June 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
  • Danrok, your interpretation is correct: Wikidata items about software concern classes, not instances. To Reaper's point: how would handling software as an instance be more useful than handling it as a class? Windows Phone 7.x (Q1854343) is not a particular, concrete thing in space and time (i.e., it is not an instance); so classifying it with 'instance of' is not correct. Instances of Windows Phone 7.x (Q1854343) would be particular installations of it; the item itself concerns the class of such things. Emw (talk) 18:14, 2 June 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]
For mass produced items like software, cars, books, movies, etc. our practice is to use 'instance of' for each model/type/novel rather than for individual dvds/books/cars. We justify this to ourselves by saying the item is for a particular design/copyright/brand rather for a particular expression of that copyright. Filceolaire (talk) 21:23, 4 December 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Both instance and subclass[edit]

I'm still having a little trouble with the instance/subclass usage. Is it really not possible to have both for one item? I have for example an item about a stratigraphic formation Dongen Formation (Q2481793) which is an "instance of = formation". And the formation belongs to the "Lower North Sea Group". Would it be better to say part of (P361) "Lower North Sea Group". I was also wondering why there isn't a constraint-template that says that items with "instance of" should not hold any "subclass of" statements. --Tobias1984 (talk) 07:29, 26 July 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Your usage of instance of (P31) and part of (P361) are both correct. I corrected Dongen Formation (Q2481793). See Help:Basic membership properties that provides a pretty good summary of use. That error would have been caught in the next User:Byrial/Class-type conflict (mismatching types between two items linked by subclass of (P279)). I am not aware of a constraint identifying items with mutually exclusive properties; possibly Byrial has another report for this already? You may also check in Wikidata:Database reports. -- LaddΩ chat ;) 02:22, 28 July 2013 (UTC)Reply[reply]

Qualifiers[edit]

It would be useful to write out recommendations on how to qualify properties like instance of (P31), subclass of (P279), and related properties

I would say: use