Wikidata:WikiProject Visual arts/Item structure

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People and organisations in the visual arts[edit]

Creators[edit]

Individual artists

Artist collectives - groups of artists working together

Typical occupations in the visual arts

Common properties (including authority control)[edit]

Since visual arts are a field of human culture persons appear in different roles. The following are some properties for persons important especially in visual arts:

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
ULAN ID P245 External identifier Union List of Artist Names: identifier from the Getty Union List of Artist Names Vincent van Gogh <ULAN ID> 500115588 -
RKDartists ID P650 External identifier RKDartists: identifier in the RKDartists database (Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie) Rembrandt <RKDartists ID> 66219 -
Sandrart.net person ID P1422 External identifier Sandrart.net: identifier in the web-based edition of Joachim von Sandrart’s "Teutscher Academie der Edlen Bau, Bild- und Mahlerey-Künste" (1675–80) Alfonso V of Aragon <Sandrart.net person ID> 1206 -
Commons Creator page P1472 String name of the "Creator" page on Wikimedia Commons Jean-Yves Lechevallier <Commons Creator page> Jean-Yves Lechevallier -

Organisations that support the visual arts[edit]

Museums

Other collecting institutions

Galleries

Works of visual art[edit]

Types of visual artworks[edit]

We maintain distinct items for

  1. types of physical artworks
  2. art disciplines
  3. the related profession
  4. the physical artwork as a series

Why?

  1. Because these concepts are conceptually different. An artistic discipline is not a work of art; a work of art is not a profession.
  2. This conceptual difference is, among others, reflected in external art history related terminology sources like the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, which also maintains separate terms (paintings (visual works) vs painting (image-making))
  3. Therefore, using them in a wrong way would result in incorrect statements (e.g. Mona Lisa (Q12418) is NOT instance of (P31) the (abstract) art discipline art of painting (Q11629) - the correct statement is that Mona Lisa (Q12418) instance of (P31) painting (Q3305213))
Subclasses of work of art Discipline
(activity (Q1914636) View with Reasonator See with SQID)
The profession
(profession (Q28640) View with Reasonator See with SQID)
In a series or set
(series (Q20937557) View with Reasonator See with SQID)
More info about properties, structure, to do list
work of art (Q838948) View with Reasonator See with SQIDart project (Q21076217) View with Reasonator See with SQID visual arts (Q36649) View with Reasonator See with SQID visual artist (Q3391743) View with Reasonator See with SQID artwork series (Q15709879) View with Reasonator See with SQIDseries of creative works (Q7725310)

Painted works[edit]

Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg
painting (Q3305213) View with Reasonator See with SQID art of painting (Q11629) View with Reasonator See with SQID painter (Q1028181) View with Reasonator See with SQID painting series (Q15727816) View with Reasonator See with SQIDcycle of paintings (Q16905563) View with Reasonator See with SQID ✓ See Wikiproject Sum of All Paintings.
Peter Paul Rubens 003.jpg
oil sketch (Q7081462) View with Reasonator See with SQID
GUGG Singer of the Comic Opera.jpg
watercolor painting (Q18761202) View with Reasonator See with SQID watercolor (Q50030) View with Reasonator See with SQID watercolourist (Q17505902) View with Reasonator See with SQID
The Ascension (f. 148).jpg
illumination (Q8362) View with Reasonator See with SQID art of illumination (Q22669085) View with Reasonator See with SQID illuminator (Q998628) View with Reasonator See with SQID illuminated manuscript (Q48498) View with Reasonator See with SQID
Trostburg Waidbruck fresco.jpg
fresco (Q22669139) View with Reasonator See with SQID fresco painting (Q134194) View with Reasonator See with SQID fresco painter (Q22669155) View with Reasonator See with SQID fresco series (Q22078284) View with Reasonator See with SQID

cycle of frescos (Q16905550) View with Reasonator See with SQID

Mural UPAEP.jpg
mural (Q219423) View with Reasonator See with SQID Muralism (Q938864) View with Reasonator See with SQID muralist (Q3374326) View with Reasonator See with SQID
Incomplete Graffito.jpg
graffiti (Q17514) View with Reasonator See with SQID street art (Q17516) View with Reasonator See with SQID graffiti artist (Q15095148) View with Reasonator See with SQID

Drawn works[edit]

Leonardo da Vinci helicopter.jpg
drawing (Q93184) View with Reasonator See with SQID art of drawing (Q2921001) View with Reasonator See with SQID draughtsperson (Q15296811) View with Reasonator See with SQID drawing series (Q19828370) View with Reasonator See with SQID

Printed works[edit]

B233 Rembrandt.jpg
print (Q11060274) View with Reasonator See with SQID printmaking (Q271588) View with Reasonator See with SQID no label (Q15966904) View with Reasonator See with SQID series of prints (Q19960510) View with Reasonator See with SQID
intaglio printing (Q194177) View with Reasonator See with SQID

includes:

Études prises dans le bas peuple ou les Cris de Paris - L’Afficheur.jpg
engraving (Q22669429) View with Reasonator See with SQID engraving (Q139106) View with Reasonator See with SQID engraver (Q329439) View with Reasonator See with SQID
Albrecht Dürer - The Virgin on the Crescent (NGA 1943.3.3474).jpg
copper engraving (Q18887969) View with Reasonator See with SQID chalcography (Q10859101) View with Reasonator See with SQID copperplate engraver (Q13365770) View with Reasonator See with SQID
mezzotint print (Q21647744) View with Reasonator See with SQID mezzotint technique (Q731980) View with Reasonator See with SQID
stipple engraving print (Q22669539) View with Reasonator See with SQID art of stipple engraving (Q7617514) View with Reasonator See with SQID
steel engraving print (Q22669546) View with Reasonator See with SQID steel engraving (Q482097) View with Reasonator See with SQID
Rembrandt The Three Crosses 1653.jpg
etching (print) (Q18218093) View with Reasonator See with SQID etching (Q186986) View with Reasonator See with SQID etcher (Q10862983) View with Reasonator See with SQID
soft-ground etching (Q22669562) View with Reasonator See with SQID vernis mou technique (Q1049829) View with Reasonator See with SQID
Museo del Prado - Goya - Caprichos - No. 03 - Que viene el Coco.jpg
aquatint print (Q18396864) View with Reasonator See with SQID aquatint technique (Q473236) View with Reasonator See with SQID
monoprinting (Q6901903) View with Reasonator See with SQID
planographic printing (Q3735299) View with Reasonator See with SQID

includes:

lithograph (Q15123870) View with Reasonator See with SQID lithography (Q133036) View with Reasonator See with SQID lithographer (Q16947657) View with Reasonator See with SQID
zincograph (Q21648161) View with Reasonator See with SQID zincography (Q204867) View with Reasonator See with SQID
monotype print (Q22669635) View with Reasonator See with SQID monotyping (Q156218) View with Reasonator See with SQID
offset print (Q22004031) View with Reasonator See with SQID offset printing (Q190408) View with Reasonator See with SQID
relief printing (Q3921059) View with Reasonator See with SQID

includes:

linocut print (Q22060043) View with Reasonator See with SQID linocut technique (Q752633) View with Reasonator See with SQID
woodcut print (Q18219090) View with Reasonator See with SQID woodcut technique (Q173242) View with Reasonator See with SQID

xylography (Q16295560) View with Reasonator See with SQID

woodcutter (Q1437754) View with Reasonator See with SQID
chiaroscuro woodcut (Q21648003) View with Reasonator See with SQID camaieu technique (Q1027977) View with Reasonator See with SQID
wood engraving print (Q22669664) View with Reasonator See with SQID wood engraving technique (Q1259197) View with Reasonator See with SQID
screen print (Q22569957) View with Reasonator See with SQID screen printing (Q187791) View with Reasonator See with SQID serigrapher (Q21925567) View with Reasonator See with SQID
photographic printmaking techniques

include:

photogravure technique (Q1602553) View with Reasonator See with SQID
rotogravure (Q635658) View with Reasonator See with SQID
heliogravure print (Q23641696) View with Reasonator See with SQID heliogravure
photolithography (Q622938) View with Reasonator See with SQID
collotype technique (Q1572315) View with Reasonator See with SQID
digital printing techniques

include:

laser print (Q21550731) View with Reasonator See with SQID
other printing techniques:
blueprint (Q422321) View with Reasonator See with SQID

Photography[edit]

Félix Nadar - Pierrot the photographer - Google Art Project.jpg
photograph (Q125191) View with Reasonator See with SQID photography (Q11633) View with Reasonator See with SQID photographer (Q33231) View with Reasonator See with SQID photograph series (Q20744439) View with Reasonator See with SQID Crystal Clear app clock-orange.svg In progress

WikiProject Visual arts/Item structure/Photographs

photo collage photocollage (Q3381561) View with Reasonator See with SQID
photomontage
fotogravure
platinum print (Q2098669) View with Reasonator See with SQID

Other two-dimensional works of visual art[edit]

pastel (Q12043905) View with Reasonator See with SQID pastelist (Q20857490) View with Reasonator See with SQID
calligraphic work (Q22669850) View with Reasonator See with SQID calligraphy (Q12681) View with Reasonator See with SQID calligrapher (Q3303330) View with Reasonator See with SQID
collage (Q22669857) View with Reasonator See with SQID collage (Q170593) View with Reasonator See with SQID collagist (Q22343478) View with Reasonator See with SQID
mosaic (Q133067) View with Reasonator See with SQID mosaicist (Q282718) View with Reasonator See with SQID
stained glass (Q1473346) View with Reasonator See with SQID stained-glass artist (Q2205972) View with Reasonator See with SQID
tapestry (Q184296) View with Reasonator See with SQID tapestry series (Q18609875) View with Reasonator See with SQID
carpet (Q163446) View with Reasonator See with SQID carpet (Q163446) View with Reasonator See with SQID
poster (Q429785) View with Reasonator See with SQID poster artist (Q739437) View with Reasonator See with SQID
sgraffito

Sculpted works[edit]

Flying Horse, East Han Dynasty.Bronze. Gansu Provincial Museum.jpg
sculpture (Q860861) View with Reasonator See with SQID art of sculpture (Q11634) View with Reasonator See with SQID sculptor (Q1281618) View with Reasonator See with SQID sculpture series (Q19479037) View with Reasonator See with SQID Crystal Clear app clock-orange.svg In progress

WikiProject Visual arts/Item structure/Sculptures

relief
bas relief
haut relief
medal medallist (Q1708232) View with Reasonator See with SQID
commemorative plaque

Installations[edit]

Invisible.dialogues.day.jpg
installation (Q20437094) View with Reasonator See with SQID installation art (Q212431) View with Reasonator See with SQID installation artist (Q18074503) View with Reasonator See with SQID series of installations (Q20895720) View with Reasonator See with SQID Crystal Clear app clock-orange.svg In progress

WikiProject Visual arts/Item structure/Installations

audiovisual installation
interactive installation
multimedia installation
video installation
sound installation
light installation
multi-channel video installation

Other three-dimensional works of visual art[edit]

found object / readymade
assemblage
light art piece
textile artwork (Q22075301) View with Reasonator See with SQID textile arts (Q10988986) View with Reasonator See with SQID
textile design (Q763631) View with Reasonator See with SQID
textile artist (Q10694573) View with Reasonator See with SQID
textile designer (Q18611810) View with Reasonator See with SQID
ceramic art (Q13464614) View with Reasonator See with SQID ceramist (Q7541856) View with Reasonator See with SQID
glass art (Q5567091) View with Reasonator See with SQID glass artist (Q2865798) View with Reasonator See with SQID
jewellery (Q161439) View with Reasonator See with SQID jewelry design (Q6189617) View with Reasonator See with SQID jeweller (Q336221) View with Reasonator See with SQID
environmental artwork (Q21042249) View with Reasonator See with SQID land art (Q326478) View with Reasonator See with SQID
mask (Q161524) View with Reasonator See with SQID
artist book

Time-based and digital works of visual art[edit]

performance artwork (Q22672348) View with Reasonator See with SQID performance art (Q213156) View with Reasonator See with SQID performance artist (Q10774753) View with Reasonator See with SQID performance series (Q20968950) View with Reasonator See with SQID
happening (Q108874) View with Reasonator See with SQID
video art piece video art (Q682010) View with Reasonator See with SQID video artist (Q18216771) View with Reasonator See with SQID
video sculpture
film
sound art piece
animation
digital artwork
computer animation
printing plate
mold (mal)
picture frame
pedestal

Artworks that consist of different parts[edit]

Misericorde.jpg
polyptych (Q1278452) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a
Diptyque de Melun reconstitué.jpg
diptych (Q475476) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a
La Adoración de los Magos, por El Bosco.jpg
triptych (Q79218) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a
quadriptych (Q21915367) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a
pentaptych (Q21915380) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a
hexaptych (Q21915411) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a
heptaptych (Q21915564) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a
octaptych (Q21915574) View with Reasonator See with SQID n/a n/a

Other[edit]

mixed media
street art
manuscript
portfolio
scale model
piece of furniture
monument
study
sketch
sketchbook

Individual objects and parts[edit]

An object can be part of another object.[1] Groups of artworks should be identified as such by a instance of (P31)-claim with one of the subclasses of group of works (Q17489659) as object. The members of the group should be identified as such by a part of (P361)- or series (P179)-claim – currently both possibilities are used.[2]

To refer to a part of an object a qualifier with applies to part (P518) is used. An item describing a part of an object is used as the value. If there is no item for the part and they are unambiguous, the items upper part (Q17525438), lower part (Q17525439), left part (Q17525441), right part (Q17525442) and middle part (Q17525443); recto (Q9305022) and verso (Q9368452); obverse (Q257418) and reverse (Q1542661) are used as values of applies to part (P518).[3]

If there are items describing the parts of an object there is no common practice how to indicate the relative position of the parts to each other unfortunately.

No discussion has taken place on how to describe the relation of two-dimensional objects to their frames. Referring to images on Commons with frames is difficult since images get often cropped as the images in c:Category:Painting frames show.

Describing individual objects[edit]

property Data type description required missing values
creator (P170) Item maker of a creative work or other object (where no more specific property exists) yes check
title (P1476) Monolingual text published title of a work, such as a newspaper article no
inception (P571) Point in time date or point in time when the organization/object was founded/created yes check
instance of (P31) Item that class of which this subject item is an individual example and member. Not to be confused with Property:P279 (subclass of). yes check
depicts (P180) Item depicted entity (see also P921: subject heading) no
shown with features (P1354) Item secondary features depicted in a work no
material used (P186) Item material the subject is made of or derived from yes check
height (P2048) Number vertical dimension of an entity no
width (P2049) Number width of an object no
commissioned by (P88) Item person or organization that commissioned this work no
location of final assembly (P1071) Item place where the item was made; location of final assembly
owned by (P127) Item owner of the subject no
coordinates of the point of view (P1259) Geographic coordinates point from which the scene depicted by the element is seen (element can be a photo, a painting, etc.) no
collection (P195) Item art, museum or bibliographic collection the subject is part of no
inventory number (P217) String identifier for a physical object or a set of physical objects in a collection no
catalog code (P528) String catalog name of an object, use with qualifier P972 no
significant event (P793) Item significant or notable events associated with the subject no
location (P276) Item location the item, physical object or event is within. In case of an administrative entity use P131. In case of a distinct terrain feature use P706. yes check
coordinate location (P625) Geographic coordinates geocoordinates of the subject no
inscription (P1684) Monolingual text inscriptions, markings and signatures on an object no
exhibition history (P608) Item exhibitions where the item was displayed no
image (P18) Commons media file image of relevant illustration of the subject; if available, use more specific properties (sample: coat of arms image, locator map, flag image, signature image, logo image); only images which exist on Wikimedia Commons are acceptable no
genre (P136) Item a creative work's genre or the genre in which an artist works. Use main subject (P921) to relate creative works to their topic no
movement (P135) Item literary, artistic or philosophical movement associated with this person or work no
main subject (P921) Item primary topic of a work no
based on (P144) Item the work(s) used as basis for subject no
inspired by (P941) Item work, human, or event which inspired this creative work or fictional entity no

A generic list of properties for artworks (and architecture) can be found at WD:List of properties/Works#Art & architecture.

Titles[edit]

Titles are a complicated field. There is title (P1476). Generally the label of an item should hold the title of the object it describes if the object has one. For general instructions for labels see Help:Label. The title should be formed following the guidelines at en:Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Visual arts#Works of art, at least for English labels. In some cases the names of notations in Iconclass (Q1502787) that can found at http://www.iconclass.org/help/outline might be used in an adapted form as titles.

Images[edit]

To assign an image on Commons to an object item image (P18) is used. Use the best image available on Commons! For two-dimensional works the image should depict the whole surface without the frame. The image file with the whole surface can then be used as a reference for relative position within image (P2677). Make sure to assign only one image per item since image (P18) has a single value constraint (as of 00:12, 28 April 2016 (UTC))[4].

Use of creator (P170) in uncertain cases[edit]

If no distinguished instance of person (Q215627), organization (Q43229) or group of humans (Q16334295) is known as a value of creator (P170) then anonymous (Q4233718) should be used. The following qualifiers may be used to link the object to a distinguished instance related to its creator:

  • attributed to (P1773): The object is not signed and there is a certain amount of uncertainty who the creator is.
  • workshop of (P1774): The object was probably created by students or employees of the artist in the same workshop, possibly with help of the named artist.
  • follower of (P1775): The object is by unknown artists who work in the manner of the named artist.
  • circle of (P1776): The object is by an unknown artist who lived in the same time as the named artist in a similar style, possibly a follower or someone who had contact with the named artist.
  • manner of (P1777): The object is in similar style as the named artist, but not necessary from the same period.
  • forgery after (P1778): The object is a forgery trying to appear to be the work of the named artist.
  • possible creator (P1779): There is a bigger uncertainty about the creator of the object.
  • school of (P1780): The object is by an unknown creator with a style influenced by the known artist or circle, active in the same period, but a student or follower.
  • after a work by (P1877): The object was strongly inspired or copied by a work of the named artist.

If no distinguished instance is known but some qualities of the value of creator (P170) these should be added. For example:

Object history or provenance[edit]

Those properties are useful:

In c:Template:Artwork this information is hold in the object history field, mapping of c:Template:ProvenanceEvent has yet to be done!

Qualifiers[edit]

Qualifiers are additional bits of data that make a statement more informative or more accurate. Like the main part of the statement they are composed of a qualifier/value couple. Here are some properties that can be useful as qualifiers:

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
applies to part P518 Item part of the object for which the statement is true. Examples:
* creator (P170) John Doe applies to part (P518): background (Q13217555)
* material used (P186): canvas (Q4259259) applies to part (P518): painting surface (Q861259)
Property talk:P518 -
determination method P459 Item the method used by the source to make the statement. Examples:
* creator (P170) John Doe determination method (P459): stylistic analysis (Q11873636)
* point in time (P585) 6000 BC determination method (P459): radiocarbon dating (Q173412)
Property talk:P459 -
image P18 Commons media file illustration: when the image is particularly relevant for a particular statement. Examples:
* The Ambassadors (Q1212937) -> depicts (P180): human skull (Q9604) image (P18): Hans_Holbein_the_Younger_-_The_Ambassadors_-_Google_Art_Project-x1-y2.jpg.
* The Ambassadors (Q1212937) -> no label (P438): ÆTATIS SUAE 25 image (P18): Holbein age Selve.JPG
Hal Koerner <image> HalKoerner2009.jpg -
color P462 Item color: as a qualifier for material used (P186). Example:
*
charcoal <color> black -

The context of the visual arts[edit]

Notable art exhibitions[edit]

Art movement / Cultural movement / Architectural style / Art group ...[edit]

Wikidata contains many similar concepts that relate to movements, styles and other tendencies in the arts.

This may sound confusing. It's best to use common sense when distinguishing those. It is OK to use two (or more) concepts at the same time!

Please note: the Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) from the Getty, probably the most widely used art vocabulary in the world, has only one 'branch' to bring all these concepts together. It calls them broadly Styles and Periods and then styles, periods and cultures.

Art movement[edit]

Cultural movement[edit]

Architectural style[edit]

Art group[edit]

  • An art group (Q4502119) is a club or group of artists who share a common ideal.
  • Usually, an art group has members and a founder. This is not the case for an art movement.
  • Wikidata does not have a separate indicator (yet?) for a so-called 'school' of artists who are contemporaries and who work in the same style, so art group is used in that case too.
  • Examples: Der Blaue Reiter (Q117035), COBRA (Q212611)
  • Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Art groups
  • Many languages don't know a difference between art group and art collective

Artist collective[edit]

Art colony[edit]

Art genre[edit]

Artistic theme[edit]

Culture / period[edit]

  • A culture (P2596) (such as Roman or Inca) is an artwork's affiliation with a particular ethno-cultural tradition, although the individual artist may be unknown.
  • A period (P2348) (such as the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt or the High Middle Ages) is an artwork's affiliation with a cultural-historical era, when it can best be dated by stylistic trends rather than a specific date.

See also...[edit]

Linking to other websites[edit]

Links to Wikipedia can be done though direct "sitelinks" for links to other websites, you can use the following properties:

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
Joconde ID P347 External identifier Joconde: identifier in the Joconde database of the French Ministry of Culture The Fifer <Joconde ID> 000PE003910 -
RKDimages P350 External identifier RKDimages: identifier per RKDimages of the Netherlands Institute for Art History The Tiger Hunt <RKDimages> 198000 -
Commons category P373 String Commons category: name of the Wikimedia Commons category containing files related to this item (without the prefix "Category:") gorilla <Commons category> Gorilla -
Europeana ID P727 External identifier Europeana: identifier in europeana.eu for books, paintings, films, museum objects and archival records that have been digitised throughout Europe Girl with a Pearl Earring <Europeana ID> 92034/GVNRC_MAU01_0670 -
described at URL P973 URL item is described at the following URL Mona Lisa <described at URL> http://musee.louvre.fr/oal/joconde/indexFR.html -
Atlas ID P1212 External identifier Atlas: identifier in the Atlas database of the Louvre Museum Q15933804 <Atlas ID> 6261 -

Note that these properties may also be used to source the statements see #Providing sources

Providing sources[edit]

Some statements do not really need a source (for instance that the Mona Lisa is a portrait or that its Joconde database ID is 000PE025604. However, in many cases, it is useful to provide references. See Help:Sources for more information.

References[edit]

  1. Cf. also Wikidata:WikiProject Visual arts/Questions#Items for single object parts!?
  2. Example for the use of part of (P361): Sunflowers (Q21948547); example for the use of series (P179): Still Life: Vase with Five Sunflowers (Q11770758). As of 4 January 2015 there is an open discussion about the use of the two properties on Property talk:P179#"has part" inverse uses.
  3. Belly Amphora by the Andokides Painter (Q540716) uses everything (Q2165236).
  4. Cf. Property talk:P18.