Wikidata:WikiProject Visual arts/Item structure
- 1 People and organisations in the visual arts
- 2 Works of visual art
- 2.1 Types of visual artworks
- 2.1.1 Painted works
- 2.1.2 Drawn works
- 2.1.3 Printed works
- 2.1.4 Photography
- 2.1.5 Other two-dimensional works of visual art
- 2.1.6 Sculpted works
- 2.1.7 Installations
- 2.1.8 Other three-dimensional works of visual art
- 2.1.9 Time-based and digital works of visual art
- 2.1.10 Artworks that consist of different parts
- 2.1.11 Other
- 2.2 Individual objects and parts
- 2.3 Describing individual objects
- 2.4 Titles
- 2.5 Images
- 2.6 Use of creator (P170) in uncertain cases
- 2.7 Object history or provenance
- 2.8 Qualifiers
- 2.1 Types of visual artworks
- 3 The context of the visual arts
- 3.1 Notable art exhibitions
- 3.2 Art movement / Cultural movement / Architectural style / Art group ...
- 4 Linking to other websites
- 5 Providing sources
- 6 References
People and organisations in the visual arts
Artist collectives - groups of artists working together
Typical occupations in the visual arts
Since visual arts are a field of human culture persons appear in different roles. The following are some properties for persons important especially in visual arts:
|ULAN ID||P245||External identifier||Union List of Artist Names: identifier from the Getty Union List of Artist Names||Vincent van Gogh <ULAN ID> 500115588||-|
|RKDartists ID||P650||External identifier||RKDartists: identifier in the RKDartists database (Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie)||Rembrandt <RKDartists ID> 66219||-|
|Sandrart.net person ID||P1422||External identifier||Sandrart.net: identifier in the web-based edition of Joachim von Sandrart’s "Teutscher Academie der Edlen Bau, Bild- und Mahlerey-Künste" (1675–80)||Alfonso V of Aragon <Sandrart.net person ID> 1206||-|
|Commons Creator page||P1472||String||Commons Creator page: name of Commons Infobox template residing in "Creator" namespace on Wikimedia Commons||Jean-Yves Lechevallier <Commons Creator page> Jean-Yves Lechevallier||-|
Organisations that support the visual arts
Other collecting institutions
Works of visual art
Types of visual artworks
We maintain distinct items for
- types of physical artworks
- art disciplines
- the related profession
- a related group of artworks, including as a series
- Because these concepts are conceptually different. An artistic discipline is not a work of art; a work of art is not a profession.
- This conceptual difference is, among others, reflected in external art history related terminology sources like the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, which also maintains separate terms (paintings (visual works) vs painting (image-making))
- Therefore, using them in a wrong way would result in incorrect statements (e.g. Mona Lisa (Q12418) is NOT instance of (P31) the (abstract) art discipline art of painting (Q11629) - the correct statement is that Mona Lisa (Q12418) instance of (P31) painting (Q3305213))
Individual objects and parts
An object can be part of another object. Groups of artworks should be identified as such by a instance of (P31)-claim with one of the subclasses of group of works (Q17489659) as object. The members of the group should be identified as such by a part of (P361)- or series (P179)-claim – currently both possibilities are used.
To refer to a part of an object a qualifier with applies to part (P518) is used. An item describing a part of an object is used as the value. If there is no item for the part and they are unambiguous, the items upper part (Q17525438), lower part (Q17525439), left part (Q17525441), right part (Q17525442) and middle part (Q17525443); recto (Q9305022) and verso (Q9368452); obverse (Q257418) and reverse (Q1542661) are used as values of applies to part (P518).
If there are items describing the parts of an object there is no common practice how to indicate the relative position of the parts to each other unfortunately.
No discussion has taken place on how to describe the relation of two-dimensional objects to their frames. Referring to images on Commons with frames is difficult since images get often cropped as the images in c:Category:Painting frames show.
Describing individual objects
|property||Data type||description||required||missing values|
|creator (P170)||Item||maker of a creative work or other object (where no more specific property exists)||yes||check|
|title (P1476)||Monolingual text||published title of a work, such as a newspaper article||no|
|inception (P571)||Point in time||date or point in time when the organization/object was founded/created||yes||check|
|instance of (P31)||Item||that class of which this subject is a particular example and member. (Subject typically an individual member with Proper Name label.) Different from P279 (subclass of).||yes||check|
|depicts (P180)||Item||depicted entity (see also P921: subject heading)||no|
|shown with features (P1354)||Item||secondary features depicted in a work||no|
|material used (P186)||Item||material the subject is made of or derived from||yes||check|
|fabrication method (P2079)||Item||method, process or technique used to grow, cook, weave, build, assemble, manufacture the item||yes||check|
|height (P2048)||Quantity||vertical dimension of an entity||no|
|width (P2049)||Quantity||width of an object||no|
|thickness (P2610)||Quantity||extent from one surface to the opposite, usually in the smallest solid dimension||no|
|commissioned by (P88)||Item||person or organization that commissioned this work||no|
|location of final assembly (P1071)||Item||place where the item was made; location of final assembly|
|owned by (P127)||Item||owner of the subject||no|
|coordinates of the point of view (P1259)||Geographic coordinates||point from which the scene depicted by the element is seen (element can be a photo, a painting, etc.)||no|
|collection (P195)||Item||art, museum or bibliographic collection the subject is part of||no|
|inventory number (P217)||String||identifier for a physical object or a set of physical objects in a collection||no|
|catalog code (P528)||String||catalog name of an object, use with qualifier P972||no|
|significant event (P793)||Item||significant or notable events associated with the subject||no|
|location (P276)||Item||location of the item, physical object or event is within. In case of an administrative entity use P131. In case of a distinct terrain feature use P706.||yes||check|
|coordinate location (P625)||Geographic coordinates||geocoordinates of the subject||no|
|inscription (P1684)||Monolingual text||inscriptions, markings and signatures on an object||no|
|exhibition history (P608)||Item||exhibitions where the item was displayed||no|
|image (P18)||Commons media file||image of relevant illustration of the subject; if available, use more specific properties (sample: coat of arms image, locator map, flag image, signature image, logo image); only images which exist on Wikimedia Commons are acceptable||no|
|genre (P136)||Item||a creative work's genre or the genre in which an artist works. Use main subject (P921) to relate creative works to their topic||no|
|movement (P135)||Item||literary, artistic or philosophical movement associated with this person or work||no|
|main subject (P921)||Item||primary topic of a work||no|
|based on (P144)||Item||the work(s) used as basis for subject||no|
|inspired by (P941)||Item||work, human, or event which inspired this creative work or fictional entity||no|
A generic list of properties for artworks (and architecture) can be found at WD:List of properties/Works#Art & architecture.
Titles are a complicated field. There is title (P1476). Generally the label of an item should hold the title of the object it describes if the object has one. For general instructions for labels see Help:Label. The title should be formed following the guidelines at en:Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Visual arts#Works of art, at least for English labels. In some cases the names of notations in Iconclass (Q1502787) that can found at http://www.iconclass.org/help/outline might be used in an adapted form as titles.
To assign an image on Commons to an object item image (P18) is used. Use the best image available on Commons! For two-dimensional works the image should depict the whole surface without the frame. The image file with the whole surface can then be used as a reference for relative position within image (P2677). Make sure to assign only one image per item since image (P18) has a single value constraint (as of 00:12, 28 April 2016 (UTC)).
Use of creator (P170) in uncertain cases
If no distinguished instance of person (Q215627), organization (Q43229) or group of humans (Q16334295) is known as a value of creator (P170) then anonymous (Q4233718) should be used. The following qualifiers may be used to link the object to a distinguished instance related to its creator:
- attributed to (P1773): The object is not signed and there is a certain amount of uncertainty who the creator is.
- workshop of (P1774): The object was probably created by students or employees of the artist in the same workshop, possibly with help of the named artist.
- follower of (P1775): The object is by unknown artists who work in the manner of the named artist.
- circle of (P1776): The object is by an unknown artist who lived in the same time as the named artist in a similar style, possibly a follower or someone who had contact with the named artist.
- manner of (P1777): The object is in similar style as the named artist, but not necessary from the same period.
- forgery after (P1778): The object is a forgery trying to appear to be the work of the named artist.
- possible creator (P1779): There is a bigger uncertainty about the creator of the object.
- school of (P1780): The object is by an unknown creator with a style influenced by the known artist or circle, active in the same period, but a student or follower.
- after a work by (P1877): The object was strongly inspired or copied by a work of the named artist.
If no distinguished instance is known but some qualities of the value of creator (P170) these should be added. For example:
Object history or provenance
Those properties are useful:
- significant event (P793) with those values:
- donated by (P1028)
- (date of disappearance (P746): Currently this property has person (Q215627) as its only domain, but extension is discussed.)
The location of an artwork can be described with location (P276). For objects in depots or generally not on display instances of museum's storage space (Q18123400) can be used like locations of the Bavarian State Painting Collections with works not on display (Q29343881) or Louvre storage (depot) (Q19059868). Cf. also the discussion Wikidata talk:WikiProject sum of all paintings/Archive/2016#Location.
Qualifiers are additional bits of data that make a statement more informative or more accurate. Like the main part of the statement they are composed of a qualifier/value couple. Here are some properties that can be useful as qualifiers:
The context of the visual arts
Notable art exhibitions
- Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Art exhibitions
Art movement / Cultural movement / Architectural style / Art group ...
Wikidata contains many similar concepts that relate to movements, styles and other tendencies in the arts.
This may sound confusing. It's best to use common sense when distinguishing those. It is OK to use two (or more) concepts at the same time!
Please note: the Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) from the Getty, probably the most widely used art vocabulary in the world, has only one 'branch' to bring all these concepts together. It calls them broadly Styles and Periods and then styles, periods and cultures.
- An art movement (Q968159) mainly has effect in the (visual) arts, maybe also design and architecture.
- It is usually a broad movement in terms of place and time. Probably its artists didn't all know each other.
- An art movement is not a kind of 'club' or 'group with formal members - for that, we have art group (see below).
- Examples of typical art movements: Antwerp school (Q2107376) (which spans two centuries!), fauvism (Q166593), abstract expressionism (Q177725)
- Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Art movements.
- A cultural movement (Q2198855) is slightly broader, and also manifests itself in other art disciplines (literature, music...).
- Examples: Baroque (Q37853), Symbolism (Q164800)
- Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Cultural movements
- architectural style (Q32880) is mainly used to indicate the style of buildings in architecture.
- Examples: postmodern architecture (Q595448), Deconstructivism (Q238255)
- Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Architectural styles
- An art group (Q4502119) is a club or group of artists who share a common ideal.
- Usually, an art group has members and a founder. This is not the case for an art movement.
- Wikidata does not have a separate indicator (yet?) for a so-called 'school' of artists who are contemporaries and who work in the same style, so art group is used in that case too.
- Examples: Der Blaue Reiter (Q117035), COBRA (Q212611)
- Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Art groups
- Many languages don't know a difference between art group and art collective
- An artist collective (Q1400264) is similar to an art group, but it especially indicates a group of artists who actually create artworks together.
- Examples: Art & Language (Q558276), Steina and Woody Vasulka (Q3482323)
- Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Artist collectives
- Many languages don't know a difference between art group and art collective
- art duo: currently in use: duo (Q10648343) for two artists working together
- An art colony (Q1558054) is a place where artists live and interact with each other
- Examples: Worpswede artist colony (Q479361)
- An art genre (Q1792379) classifies an artwork (or an artist) by its form or content. An art movement is more about the cultural influence and tradition of the artwork and can be visible in many art genres at once.
- Examples: portrait (Q134307), installation art (Q212431), funerary art (Q2083647)
- Item structure and to do list: WikiProject Visual Arts/Item structure/Art genres
Culture / period
- A culture (P2596) (such as Roman or Inca) is an artwork's affiliation with a particular ethno-cultural tradition, although the individual artist may be unknown.
- A period (P2348) (such as the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt or the High Middle Ages) is an artwork's affiliation with a cultural-historical era, when it can best be dated by stylistic trends rather than a specific date.
- earliest date (P1319) and latest date (P1326) can be useful as qualifiers for specifying the range of possible dates assigned by art historians to a work. sourcing circumstances (P1480) can also be use for "circa" or similar terms.
- An intended public (P2360) is the target audience for a type of art that crosses cultures, such as Chinese export porcelain intended for the Western market.
- Wikidata:WikiProject Visual arts/Item structure/Art movements
Linking to other websites
Links to Wikipedia can be done though direct "sitelinks" for links to other websites, you can use the following properties:
|Joconde ID||P347||External identifier||Joconde: identifier in the Joconde database of the French Ministry of Culture||The Fifer <Joconde ID> 000PE003910||-|
|RKDimages||P350||External identifier||RKDimages: identifier per RKDimages of the Netherlands Institute for Art History||The Tiger Hunt <RKDimages> 198000||-|
|Commons category||P373||String||Commons category: name of the Wikimedia Commons category containing files related to this item (without the prefix "Category:")||gorilla <Commons category> Gorilla||-|
|Europeana ID||P727||External identifier||Europeana: identifier in europeana.eu for books, paintings, films, museum objects and archival records that have been digitised throughout Europe||Girl with a Pearl Earring <Europeana ID> 92034/GVNRC_MAU01_0670||-|
|described at URL||P973||URL||item is described at the following URL||Mona Lisa <described at URL> http://musee.louvre.fr/oal/joconde/indexFR.html||-|
|Atlas ID||P1212||External identifier||Atlas: identifier in the Atlas database of the Louvre Museum||Q15933804 <Atlas ID> 6261||-|
Note that these properties may also be used to source the statements see #Providing sources
Some statements do not really need a source (for instance that the Mona Lisa is a portrait or that its Joconde database ID is 000PE025604. However, in many cases, it is useful to provide references. See Help:Sources for more information.
- Cf. also Wikidata:WikiProject Visual arts/Questions#Items for single object parts!?
- Example for the use of part of (P361): Sunflowers (Q21948547); example for the use of series (P179): Still Life: Vase with Five Sunflowers (Q11770758). As of 4 January 2015 there is an open discussion about the use of the two properties on Property talk:P179#"has part" inverse uses.
- Belly Amphora by the Andokides Painter (Q540716) uses everything (Q2165236).
- Cf. Property talk:P18.