Wikidata:WikiProject every politician/Political data model

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Data Model for Politicians[edit]

This is an attempt to document best practices for modelling data about politicians and the offices they have held. Ideally data should modelled in as consistent a manner as possible across different countries, so that queries that work in one place will also work with minimal changes elsewhere. This is still a work in progress, and discussion on different/better approaches is always very welcome.

Holding Political Office[edit]

The core property for holding political office is position held (P39) (member of (P463) should not be used for this).

Several different approaches to position held (P39) statements are currently used, depending on the quality of data sources, and the richness of information required:

Approach 1[edit]

Uses a single standard membership property, e.g. member of the European Parliament (Q27169), and no qualifiers. This is very common when bulk-importing data on politicians, e.g. from Wikipedia Categories, and is very useful base information.

position held (P39)
Normal rank member of the European Parliament (Q27169) Arbcom ru editing.svg edit
▼ 0 reference
+ add reference
+ add value

[* NB: A list of the existing "Member of Country's Legislature" items can been seen on the List of National Legislatures page.]

Approach 2[edit]

The position held (P39) statement is qualified with start time (P580) and end time (P582). This is a substantial improvement on Approach 1, as it lets us know when someone held office, not simply that they did hold office.

position held (P39)
Normal rank member of the European Parliament (Q27169) Arbcom ru editing.svg edit
start time 20 July 2004
end time 21 October 2013
▼ 0 reference
+ add reference
+ add value

Approach 3[edit]

Similar to Approach 2, but where a specific item relating to the holding that office exists, and can hold extra information.

position held (P39)
Normal rank President of the United States (Q11696) Arbcom ru editing.svg edit
start time 20 January 2009
end time 20 January 2017
statement is subject of presidency of Barack Obama (Q1379733)
▼ 0 reference
+ add reference
+ add value

Approach 4[edit]

Note: This approach may not be applicable in all scenarios, depending on the structure of a specific legislature and/or of existing data. It is generally advisable to start a discussion before converting data from one approach to another.

Separate position held (P39) statements for each mandate:

position held (P39)
Normal rank member of the European Parliament (Q27169) Arbcom ru editing.svg edit
parliamentary term Sixth European Parliament (Q4642661)
start time 20 July 2004
end time 13 July 2009
elected in 2004 European Parliament election (Q1331918)
▼ 0 reference
+ add reference
Normal rank member of the European Parliament (Q27169) Arbcom ru editing.svg edit
parliamentary term Seventh European Parliament (Q4644021)
start time 14 July 2009
end time 21 October 2013
elected in 2009 European Parliament election (Q210152)
▼ 0 reference
+ add reference
+ add value

Although slightly more complicated to enter, this form allows for much richer data that is usually easier to query. It is particularly suitable in the common scenario where a source only provides a list of members serving during a given legislative term, and does not provide individual dates of service, allowing parliamentary term (P2937) information to be added first, and more precise start time (P580) and end time (P582) to be sourced separately later. It's generally seen as incompatible with the format of Level 1/2.

Approach 5[edit]

A similar approach to number 4, utilised for the UK House of Commons and some other national legislatures, is to create discrete position items for each legislative term, each term-item being a subclass of a more general Q11765029 item. It assumes that the legislature defines the position on such a basis.

position held (P39)
Normal rank Member of the 51st Parliament of the United Kingdom (Q41582627) Arbcom ru editing.svg edit
parliamentary term 51st United Kingdom Parliament (Q21084468)
start time 9 April 1992
end time 8 April 1997
elected in 1992 United Kingdom general election (Q543609)
▼ 0 reference
+ add reference
Normal rank Member of the 52nd Parliament of the United Kingdom (Q36634044) Arbcom ru editing.svg edit
parliamentary term 52nd United Kingdom Parliament (Q21084469)
start time 1 May 1997
end time 14 May 2001
elected in 1997 United Kingdom general election (Q918503)
▼ 0 reference
+ add reference
+ add value

Additional Qualifiers[edit]

Other highly recommended qualifiers on position held (P39) statements include:

Notes:

Membership Items[edit]

Items for parliamentary "member of" (e.g. member of the Parliament of Finland (Q17592486)) should use properties:

Mandatory
country (P17)
subclass of (P279) : member of parliament (Q486839) (or similar)
part of (P361) : political body, eg House of Commons (Q11005)
instance of (P31) : position (Q4164871)
applies to jurisdiction (P1001) : country or subdivision
topic's main category (P910) : category for members (parent category if subdivided)

As illustrated in the Level 3a example, above, in some countries, the preference is to use term-specific membership items, such as Member of the 16th Lok Sabha (Q42509248), Member of the 15th Lok Sabha (Q42509330), etc. This makes data easier to manipulate with some common tooling (such as QuickStatements and Listeria (Q24045615) that otherwise struggle with someone having held the same position more than once). Where this approach is used the subclass of (P279) for each such item must also be set to the non-term-specific item for that legislature (e.g. member of the Lok Sabha (Q16556694)), and each position held (P39) statement must also include a parliamentary term (P2937) qualifier, so that standardised queries can be constructed without needing to know which type of item is in place.

People[edit]

The politicians themselves should usually have the following data:

Mandatory
instance of (P31) : human (Q5)
occupation (P106) : politician (Q82955)
Where known
<sex or gender (P21)>
<country of citizenship (P27)>
<date of birth (P569)>
<date of death (P570)> (if deceased!)
<given name (P735)>
<family name (P734)>
Where appropriate
Nationally-specific authority properties such as
<History of Parliament ID (P1614)> (UK)
<Dutch Senate person ID (P1959)> (Netherlands)
<senat.fr ID (P1808)> (France)
(see a longer list at Wikidata:WikiProject Parliaments#For_members_of_parliament)

Legislative Branch[edit]

Information on modelling the legislatures themselves, as well as the legislative terms, and constituencies, can be found at Wikidata:WikiProject_Parliaments

Elections[edit]

Information on modelling elections can be found at Wikidata:WikiProject elections.

Executive Branch[edit]

Head of Government[edit]

Cabinet[edit]

A parent class for the Cabinet itself (e.g. Cabinet of Wales (Q32859630)), with:

Mandatory
subclass of (P279) : cabinet (Q640506)
applies to jurisdiction (P1001) : the country

Then, for each individual cabinet (e.g. Fourth Morgan ministry (Q27957662)):

Mandatory
instance of (P31) : the parent class (above)
applies to jurisdiction (P1001) : the country
inception (P571): date formed
dissolved, abolished or demolished (P576): date abolished (omit if current)
has part (P527): list of members (see below)
Preferable
replaces (P1365): preceding cabinet
replaced by (P1366): following cabinet
Cabinet memberships[edit]

Each member should have a position held (P39) for the position:

< Rhodri Glyn Thomas (Q7321239) View with Reasonator View with SQID > position held (P39) View with SQID < Minister for Heritage (Q25713775) View with Reasonator View with SQID >
start time (P580) View with SQID < 2007-07-19 >
end time (P582) View with SQID < 2008-07-18 >

Cabinet-Level Positions[edit]

e.g. Minister for Health and Social Services (Q6865862)

Mandatory
instance of (P31) : public office (Q294414)
subclass of (P279) : minister (Q83307) or one or more suitable subclasses, e.g. health minister (Q3273722)
applies to jurisdiction (P1001): the geographic scope, i.e. the country/state/province (e.g. Wales (Q25))
country (P17): the country (e.g. United Kingdom (Q145) — will be the same as applies to jurisdiction (P1001) for national-level positions)
part of (P361): the cabinet (e.g. Cabinet of Wales (Q32859630)
Preferable
inception (P571): when office was created
replaces (P1365): previous office(s) with similar remit (e.g. Secretary for Health & Social Services (Q32947381))
dissolved, abolished or demolished (P576): when office was abolished
replaced by (P1366): successor office(s) with similar remit (e.g. Cabinet Secretary for Health, Well-being & Sport (Q32947395))
organization directed from the office or person (P2389): ministry for which responsible (e.g. NHS Wales (Q6954180))
Non-Cabinet Ministerial positions[edit]

Junior positions can be modelled following the pattern for Cabinet positions; however the part of (P361) qualifier of the position statement should point to the government - e.g. Welsh Government (Q3112646) - rather than to the cabinet.