Wikidata:WikiProjet Livres

From Wikidata
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page is a translated version of the page Wikidata:WikiProject Books and the translation is 89% complete.

Other languages:
العربية • ‎čeština • ‎Deutsch • ‎English • ‎español • ‎français • ‎italiano • ‎日本語 • ‎македонски • ‎Nederlands • ‎polski • ‎română • ‎русский • ‎svenska • ‎тоҷикӣ • ‎українська • ‎اردو • ‎中文

WikiProjet Livres

Wikidata-books-task-force-logo.svg

L'objectif du WikiProjet Livres est :

  • de définir un ensemble de propriétés utilisable par les infoboxes de livre, les modèles de livre sur Commons, et Wikisource.
  • de cartographier et importer les données pertinentes qui sont réparties actuellement sur Commons, Wikipédia et Wikisource.
  • d'établir les méthodes pour interagir avec ces données de différents projets.

Propriétés bibliographiques

Nous utilisons le modèle w:Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) - un modèle très utilisé dans le milieu - pour séparer les propriétés des livres en deux catégories. Le modèle FRBF traite les données du livre à 4 niveaux : en tant que travail , comme expression , une manifestation ou un article.

Dans les projets Wikimédia, il n'est pas utile d'utiliser toutes ses données en même temps. Les différentes Wikipédia, traitent souvent d'un livre comme étant une œuvre unique (en anglais : work) mais il existe des œuvres travaillées (exemple : la Bible, Pinocchio, Hamlet,...) qui connaissent différentes traductions, éditions et adaptations.

Sur Wikisource, une édition particulière (parfois, il y en a plusieurs) est utilisée pour un livre. Comme il existe différentes Wikisource, nous pouvons présenter les différentes traductions.

Il n'y a aucune raison de faire compliqué. C'est pourquoi, il a été choisi d'utiliser les termes "expression" et "manifestations" car les nuances entre les deux ne sont pas facile à saisir. Nous avons donc choisi l'expression "édition" pour synthétiser les deux concepts/couches. La double couche "travail - édition" a donc été utilisée pour gérer les propriétés des livres.

Propriétés des éléments d'œuvres

Ces propriétés sont destinées à l'élément principal représentant le livre (FRBR niveau œuvre). Elles sont principalement utilisées pour les éléments liés aux pages Wikipédia.

Title
ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
instance ofP31Iteminstance of and set membership: that class of which this subject is a particular example and member. (Subject typically an individual member with Proper Name label.) Different from P279 (subclass of)The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas <instance of> book-
authorP50Itemauthor: main creator(s) of a written work (use on works, not humans)Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone <author> J. K. Rowling-
possible creatorP1779Itemcreator: for a creative work with considerable uncertainty about the authorRampin Rider <possible creator> Rampin Master-
contributor(s) to the creative workP767Itemcontributor: person or organization that contributed to a subject: co-creator of a creative workDiscworld Noir <contributor(s) to the creative work> Terry Pratchettcontributed to published work
editorP98Itemeditor: editor of a compiled work such as a book or academic journalÖsterreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 <editor> Austrian Academy of Sciences-
titleP1476Monolingual textoriginal title and title: published title of a work, such as a newspaper article, a literary work, a website, or a performance workDiary of Anne Frank <title> Het Achterhuis-
subtitleP1680Monolingual textsubtitle: for works, when the title is followed by a subtitleDiary of Anne Frank <subtitle> Dagboekbrieven van 12 Juni 1942 – 1 Augustus 1944-
language of work or nameP407Itemlanguage: language associated with this work or name (for persons use P103 and P1412)Diary of Anne Frank <language of work or name> Dutch-
inceptionP571Point in timeinception: date or point in time when the organization/subject was founded/createdTirant lo Blanch <inception> 1490-
movementP135Itemcultural movement: literary, artistic, scientific or philosophical movement associated with this person or workUrbi et orbi, 1903 <movement> Russian symbolism-
genreP136Itemgenre: creative work's genre or an artist's field of work (P101). Use main subject (P921) to relate creative works to their topicThe Hours <genre> novel-
main subjectP921Itemtopic: primary topic of a work (see also P180: depicts)The Party Journalist <main subject> radio propaganda-
Dewey Decimal ClassificationP1036StringDewey Decimal Classification: use with qualifier "edition (p747)" with item value "DDC 23" or create new item to represent the corresponding DDC editionThe Party Journalist <Dewey Decimal Classification> [DDC22ger/ 791.44609431 [DDC22ger]]-
Library of Congress ClassificationP1149StringLibrary of Congress Classification: subject classification identifier used in the Library of Congress Classification systemThe Party Journalist <Library of Congress Classification> PN1990.6.G3-
Regensburg ClassificationP1150StringRegensburg Classification: identifier used for this class in the Regensburg Classification systemThe Party Journalist <Regensburg Classification> 39018 AP 39018-
Chinese Library ClassificationP1189External identifierChinese Library Classification: identifier used for this class in the CLCThe Party Journalist <Chinese Library Classification> G229.517-
Universal Decimal ClassificationP1190StringUniversal Decimal Classification: type of library classificationThe Party Journalist <Universal Decimal Classification> 316.774:32-
award receivedP166Itemaward: award or recognition received by a person, organisation or creative workThe Hours <award received> Pulitzer Prize for Fictionwinner
followsP155Itemfollows: immediately prior item in a series of which the subject is a part [if the subject has replaced the preceding item, e.g. political offices, use "replaces" (P1365)]]A Feast for Crows <follows> A Storm of Swordsfollowed by
followed byP156Itemfollowed by: immediately following item in a series of which the subject is a part [if the subject has been replaced, e.g. political offices, use "replaced by" (P1366)]A Feast for Crows <followed by> A Dance with Dragonsfollows
seriesP179Itemseries of creative works: subject is part of a series, the sum of which constitutes the objectA Feast for Crows <series> A Song of Ice and Fire-
based onP144Itembased on: the work(s) used as the basis for subject itemPride and Prejudice and Zombies <based on> Pride and Prejudicederivative work
inspired byP941Itemwork, human, place or event which inspired this creative work or fictional entityThe Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino <inspired by> The Adventures of Pinocchio-
charactersP674Itemfictional character and fictional human: characters which appear in this item (like plays, operas, operettas, books, comics, films, TV series, video games)The Three Musketeers <characters> Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnanpresent in work
narrative locationP840Itemgeographic setting of film: the narrative of the work is set in this locationThe Fall of the King <narrative location> Himmerland-
imageP18Commons media fileillustration: image of relevant illustration of the subject; if available, use more specific properties (sample: coat of arms image, locator map, flag image, signature image, logo image, collage image); only images which exist on Wikimedia Commons are acceptableTirant lo Blanch <image> Tirante el Blanco 1511.jpg-
OCLC work IDP5331External identifierOnline Computer Library Center: identifier for a work-level item in the OCLC linked data systemQ11897247 <OCLC work ID> 2564937689-
Open Library IDP648External identifierOpen Library: identifier for a work ("W"), edition ("M") or author ("A")Mister President <Open Library ID> OL938688W-
LibraryThing work IDP1085External identifierLibraryThing: LibraryThing (LT) control numberThe Seven Messengers <LibraryThing work ID> 6068145-
has editionP747Itemversion, translation and source text: link to an edition of this itemBrockhaus Enzyklopädie <has edition> Brockhaus Enzyklopädie (21 ed.)edition or translation of
sourcing circumstancesP1480Itemqualification of the truth or accuracy of a source: circa (Q5727902), near (Q21818619), presumably (Q18122778), etc.gas lighting <sourcing circumstances> circa-
Babelio work IDP3631External identifierBabelio: identifier for a book on the literature website BabelioThe Stranger <Babelio work ID> 3874-
contributed to published workP3919Itemcreative work: person is cited as contributing to published work or series (qualify with "subject has role", P2868)John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn <contributed to published work> Dictionary of National Biographycontributor(s) to the creative work


Propriété pour les éléments d'éditions

Ces propriétés sont destinées à l'élément représentant l'édition d'un livre. (FRBR niveau expression/manifestation). Elles sont principalement utilisées pour les éditions de livres utilisées en tant que sources.

Title
ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
instance ofP31Iteminstance of and set membership: that class of which this subject is a particular example and member. (Subject typically an individual member with Proper Name label.) Different from P279 (subclass of)Brockhaus Enzyklopädie (21 ed.) <instance of> version-
edition or translation ofP629Itemliterary work: is an edition or translation of this entityBrockhaus Enzyklopädie (21 ed.) <edition or translation of> Brockhaus Enzyklopädiehas edition
language of work or nameP407Itemlanguage: language associated with this work or name (for persons use P103 and P1412)Autobiografia di Alice Toklas (translation) <language of work or name> Italian-
authorP50Itemauthor: main creator(s) of a written work (use on works, not humans)Autobiografia di Alice Toklas (translation) <author> Gertrude Stein-
translatorP655Itemtranslator: creative work adapted to another language by (use P407 to indicate the target language)Autobiografia di Alice Toklas (translation) <translator> Cesare Pavese-
editorP98Itemeditor: editor of a compiled work such as a book or academic journalEclipse of Reason <editor> Alfred Schmidt-
illustratorP110Itemillustrator: person drawing the pictures in a bookBarefoot on the fire <illustrator> Mikhail Filippovich-
contributor(s) to the creative workP767Itemcontributor: person or organization that contributed to a subject: co-creator of a creative workDiscworld Noir <contributor(s) to the creative work> Terry Pratchettcontributed to published work
author of forewordP2679Itemperson who wrote the preface, foreword, or introduction of the book but who isn't an author of the rest of the bookBottroper Protokolle <author of foreword> Martin Walser-
author of afterwordP2680Itemperson who wrote the postface, afterword, or conclusion of the book but who isn't an author of the rest of the bookNineteen Eighty-Four <author of afterword> Erich Fromm-
titleP1476Monolingual textoriginal title and title: title of this particular editionThe Tower <title> Der Turm-
subtitleP1680Monolingual textsubtitle: sous-titre de cette édition particulièreThe Tower <subtitle> Geschichte aus einem versunkenen Land-
edition numberP393Stringnumber of this edition (first, second, ... as 1, 2, ...) of a book or eventThe Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1st edition) <edition number> 1-
place of publicationP291Itemplace of publication: geographical place of publication of the edition (use 1st edition when referring to works)The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1st edition) <place of publication> New York City-
publisherP123Itempublishing house: organization or person responsible for publishing books, periodicals, games or softwareThe Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1st edition) <publisher> Harcourt-
publication dateP577Point in timedate of publication: date or point in time when a work was first published or releasedThe Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1st edition) <publication date> 1933-
printed byP872Itemorganization or person who printed the creative work (if different from "publisher")Gutenberg Bible <printed by> Johannes Gutenberg-
collectionP195Itemcollection: art, museum or bibliographic collection the subject is part ofGutenberg Bible <collection> Widener Library-
imageP18Commons media fileillustration: image of relevant illustration of the subject; if available, use more specific properties (sample: coat of arms image, locator map, flag image, signature image, logo image, collage image); only images which exist on Wikimedia Commons are acceptableGutenberg Bible <image> Gutenberg Bible, Lenox Copy, New York Public Library, 2009. Pic 01.jpg-
number of pagesP1104Quantitypage: number of pages in an edition of a written workDer Herr Präsident <number of pages> 242-
number of parts of a work of artP2635QuantityUse with volume (Q1238720) or chapter (Q1980247) as the unitsMy Life in Two Hemispheres <number of parts of a work of art> -
ISBN-10P957External identifierInternational Standard Book Number: identifiant numérique d’un livre du commerce (pour une présentation correcte, les 10 chiffres d’un ISBN doivent être séparés par des tirets)Monsieur le Président <ISBN-10> 2-08-070455-9-
ISBN-13P212External identifierInternational Standard Book Number: identifiant numérique de livre commercial (pour une présentation correcte, les 13 chiffres d'un ISBN doivent être divisés par des traits d'union ; convertisseur en ligne vers le ISBN-13 pour les numéros plus vieux)El Señor Presidente (critical edition) <ISBN-13> 978-84-89666-51-1-
SUDOC editionsP1025External identifierSUDOC: identifier in the French union catalog (see also P269)The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1st edition) <SUDOC editions> 056055145-
SWB editionsP1044External identifierSouth-West German Library Network: union catalog of the South-West German Library Network (SWB)The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1st edition) <SWB editions> 013500643-
EUL editionsP1084External identifieridentifier for a book (edition) in the Egyptian union catalogEhrenwerter Herr (German edition, 1996) <EUL editions> 835285022-
BN (Argentine) editionsP1143External identifierNational Library of the Argentine Republic: catalogue number for books (editions) in the National Library of the Argentine RepublicEl Señor Presidente (critical edition) <BN (Argentine) editions> 000188710-
DNB editionsP1292External identifierGerman National Library: identifier in the German National Library catalogue (see also authority data P227)Ehrenwerter Herr (German edition, 1996) <DNB editions> 948859040-
OCLC control numberP243External identifierOnline Computer Library Center and WorldCat: identifier from the Online Computer Library CenterThe Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1st edition) <OCLC control number> 190771-
Open Library IDP648External identifierOpen Library: identifier for a work ("W"), edition ("M") or author ("A")Monsieur le Président <Open Library ID> OL19717630M-
Google Books IDP675External identifieridentifier for a book that Google has scannedTirant lo Blanch (original edition) <Google Books ID> 7r14FzJdSuAC-
Internet Archive IDP724External identifierInternet Archive: identifier for an item on archive.orgFrankenstein <Internet Archive ID> ghostseer01schiuoft-
RSL scanned book's identifierP1815Stringidentifier of the Russian State LibraryThe Kiss and Other Stories by Anton Tchekhoff <RSL scanned book's identifier> 01004438677-
RSL editionsP1973External identifiercatalogue number of the Russian State Library of Moscow (see also P1815 and P947)Q19610651 <RSL editions> 003564198-
legal citation of this textP1031Stringlegal citation: pour d'anciennes versions d'une législationConstitution Act, 1867, as amended <legal citation of this text> 30 & 31 Vict, c 3 (UK), reprinted in RSC 1985, App II, No 5, as amended by SC 2011, c 26.-
Project Gutenberg ebook IDP2034External identifierProject Gutenberg: ebook identifier at Project GutenbergA Small Boy and Others <Project Gutenberg ebook ID> 2611-
BnF IDP268External identifierBNF authorities: identifier for the subject issued by BNF (Bibliothèque nationale de France). Format: 8 digits followed by a check-digit or letter, do not include the initial 'cb'.René Magritte <BnF ID> 123735831-
ESTC citation numberP3939External identifieridentifier in the English Short Title CatalogueMunimenta antiqua: or, observations on antient castles <ESTC citation number> T136033-
Czech National Bibliography book IDP3184External identifieridentifier for a book at the Czech National LibraryDuch Německa <Czech National Bibliography book ID> cnb000567876-

Propriétés inter-projets

Elles devraient être utilisées seulement pour les éditions.

Title
ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
scanned file on Wikimedia CommonsP996Commons media filefile on Wikimedia Commons related to the content of the source/book/reportBeate und Mareile (1st edition) <scanned file on Wikimedia Commons> De Beate und Mareile (Keyserling).djvu-
Commons categoryP373StringCommons category: name of the Wikimedia Commons category containing files related to this item (without the prefix "Category:")Q19237155 <Commons category> Störzner_-_Was_die_Heimat_erzählt-
Wikisource index pageP1957URLHelp:Index pages: page in Wikisource containing digital and paper pagination of the sourceThe Kiss and Other Stories by Anton Tchekhoff <Wikisource index page> https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Index:The_Kiss_and_Other_Stories_by_Anton_Tchekhoff,_1908.pdf-
full work available atP953URLURL of a web page containing the full text for this itemL'Odyssée, 'Poésie homérique' <full work available at> http://iliadeodyssee.texte.free.fr/aatexte/berard/accueilberard/odyssberard.htm-

Qualifiers

Liste des qualificatifs pour les œuvres et/ou éditons.

property datatype description
named as (P1810) String Example: author (P50) => Victor Eremita [pseudonyme de Søren Kierkegaard]
applies to part (P518) Item Example: contributor(s) to the creative work (P767) => foreword (Q1358138)
distribution (P437) Item Example: ISBN-13 (P212) => hardback (Q193955); paperback (Q193934)

Liste des qualificatifs pour l'utilisation d'un élément d'une édition comme une source pour une déclaration.

property datatype description
statement is subject of (P805) Item Pour lier l'élément de l'édition
quote (P1683) String Citation pertinente
volume (P478) String Volume
issue (P433) String Numéro
chapter (P792) String Chapitre. Note : Il ne peut pas être affiché dans les modèles bibliographiques et gadgets comme un article avec un lien, utiliser section, verse, or paragraph (P958).
section, verse, or paragraph (P958) String Section
page(s) (P304) String Localisation de la déclaration
column (P3903) String Colonne de la déclaration

Voir aussi described by source (P1343) pour les encyclopédies et dictionnaires utilisés comme sources.

Propriétés d'exemplaires

Il y a un certain nombre d'article Wikipédia concernant la copie unique d'un livre devenue célèbre pour différentes raisons. Voyez par exemple Lincoln Bible (Q1816474) et les bibles listées dans Category:Individual Bibles (Q8546779). Ces éléments d'exemplaires uniques nécessitent des propriétés différentes que celles utilisées pour une œuvre littéraire.

Lorsqu'il n'y a qu'une seule copie d'une œuvre littéraire, alors l'élément Wikidata nécessite les deux jeux de propriétés.

Title
ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
instance ofP31Iteminstance of and set membership: that class of which this subject is a particular example and member. (Subject typically an individual member with Proper Name label.) Different from P279 (subclass of)Lincoln Bible <instance of> individual book-
exemplar ofP1574Itemproperty for manuscripts, autographs, incunabula, distinct printed copiesOn the laws and practice of horse racing (UPenn copy) <exemplar of> On the laws and practice of horse racing (1866 edition)-
collectionP195Itemcollection: art, museum or bibliographic collection the subject is part ofOn the laws and practice of horse racing, etc., etc (UC copy) <collection> University of California Libraries-
locationP276Itemlocation: location of the item, physical object or event is within. In case of an administrative entity use P131. In case of a distinct terrain feature use P706.Mona Lisa <location> Louvre Museum-
inventory numberP217Stringitem of collections or exhibitions: identifier for a physical object or a set of physical objects in a collectionThe Night Watch <inventory number> SK-C-5-
owned byP127Itemproprietor: owner of the subjectLincoln Bible <owned by> Abraham Lincolnowner of
official nameP1448Monolingual textofficial name: official name of the subject in its official language(s)Germany <official name> Bundesrepublik Deutschland-
significant eventP793Itemkey event: significant or notable events associated with the subjectDennewitz <significant event> Battle of Dennewitz-

Voyez Wikidata:WikiProject Visual arts/Item structure pour d'autres propriétés qui pourraient être applicables.

Propriétés de manuscrits

Les manuscrits sont les copies uniques d'œuvres littéraire, donc un manuscrit n'est pas la même chose qu'une œuvre littéraire. Toutes les propriétés, telles que auteur, date de publication, etc., trouvent leur place pour le seul manuscrit. Tous les éléments de manuscrit nécessitent instance of (P31) manuscript (Q87167). Il existe des éléments plus spécifiques pour caractériser un manuscrit en combinaison avec instance of (P31): codex (Q213924), literary fragment (Q1440453), ostracon (Q834459), manuscript codex (Q2217259), palimpsest (Q274076), Evangeliary (Q1754581), Gospel Book (Q690851), lectionary (Q284465). Spécifiez le matériau d'écriture avec material used (P186): papyrus (Q125576), paper (Q11472), leather (Q286), parchment (Q226697) sherd (Q1463658). L'éditeur, s'il en existe un, est celui qui publie le texte du manuscrit pour la première fois qu'il est imprimé. La publication date (P577) concerne aussi la première édition imprimée. La date à laquelle a été fait le manuscrit en lui-même est indiquée avec inception (P571) (choisissez le niveau de précision approprié). Choisissez un lieu pour location (P276) avec la meilleure précision, sinon utilisez la ville où collection (P195) est située.

Title
ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
instance ofP31Iteminstance of and set membership: that class of which this subject is a particular example and member. (Subject typically an individual member with Proper Name label.) Different from P279 (subclass of)Codex Sinaiticus <instance of> manuscript-
instance ofP31Iteminstance of and set membership: that class of which this subject is a particular example and member. (Subject typically an individual member with Proper Name label.) Different from P279 (subclass of)Isaiah scroll <instance of> scroll-
exemplar ofP1574Itemproperty for manuscripts, autographs, incunabula, distinct printed copiesHohenems-Münchener Handschrift A <exemplar of> Nibelungenlied-
material usedP186Itemmaterial: material the subject is made of or derived fromBerlin Codex <material used> papyrus-
collectionP195Itemcollection: art, museum or bibliographic collection the subject is part ofBerlin Codex <collection> Egyptian Museum of Berlin-
locationP276Itemlocation: location of the item, physical object or event is within. In case of an administrative entity use P131. In case of a distinct terrain feature use P706.Berlin Codex <location> Museum Island-
inventory numberP217Stringitem of collections or exhibitions: identifier for a physical object or a set of physical objects in a collectionBerlin Codex <inventory number> P 8502-
named afterP138Itemeponym: entity or event that inspired the subject's name, or namesake (in at least one language)Askew Codex <named after> Anthony Askew-
editorP98Itemeditor: editor of a compiled work such as a book or academic journalCodex Ephraemi Rescriptus <editor> Constantin von Tischendorf-
publication dateP577Point in timedate of publication: date or point in time when a work was first published or releasedCodex Ephraemi Rescriptus <publication date> 1843/1845-
inceptionP571Point in timeinception: date or point in time when the organization/subject was founded/createdGospels of Henry the Lion <inception> 1180er-
language of work or nameP407Itemlanguage: language associated with this work or name (for persons use P103 and P1412)Book of Kells <language of work or name> Latin-
time of discovery or inventionP575Point in timediscovery: date or point in time when the item was discovered or inventedPapyrus 1 <time of discovery or invention> 1896-
location of discoveryP189Itemdiscovery: where the item was located when discoveredPapyrus Oxyrhynchus 81 <location of discovery> Oxyrhynchus-


Périodiques et collection d'œuvres

Liste de propriétés additionnelles pour les journaux et les œuvres en plusieurs volumes.

Title
ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
dissolved, abolished or demolishedP576Point in timedissolved, abolished or demolished date: date or point in time on which an organisation was dissolved/disappeared or a building demolished; see also discontinued date (P2669)Team Bath F.C. <dissolved, abolished or demolished> -
has partP527Itemhas part: part of this subject. Inverse property of "part of" (P361).The Cactaceae <has part> The Cactaceae. Volume 2part of

Voyez aussi Template:Bibliographical properties.

Pour les parties d'une collection d'œuvres (comme un récit publié dans une anthologie), utilisez published in (P1433) :

Title
ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
published inP1433Itemunknown: larger work that a given work was published in, like a book, journal or music albumEppure battono alla porta <published in> The Seven Messengers-

Mapping

This table groups properties from en:Template:Infobox book and fr:Modèle:Infobox Livre. Please propose new properties here, and update this mapping created by Aubrey.


Participants

The participants listed below can be notified using the following template in discussions:

{{Ping project|Books}}

Boîte utilisateur : {{User books}}.


Liens connexes

Tools

  • Wikidata:Tools: tools for editing pages. Many are especially interesting for books (es. Authority control). Aubrey's favourite are here.


Éléments sans déclaration


Remote editors for wikidata book related elements

mediaWiki.loader.load( '//ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=MediaWiki:WEF_AllEditors.js&action=raw&ctype=text/javascript' );

AJAX-API editors for items, including person, work and edition wikidata elements, that run from any page of any project. The script allows remote editing of the wikidata element linked to that local page through a comfortable user interface. Add the above script line to your global.js; alternatively you can add it to each wiki individually using your local common.js on the respective wiki.

Scripts are by User:Vlsergey. Further information available at Wikipedia:WE-Framework


Boîtes de navigation

Livres (Edit)

Propriétés bibliographiques (Edit)