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维基数据:词汇表

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维基数据是一个人人皆可编辑的知识库。在你开始之前,让自己熟悉维基数据词汇表是个好主意。这样,编者们便能“用上同一门语言”(可以这么说)。我们希望这有助于改进编者之间的讨论交流

词汇表是按照概念含义进行排序的,尽可能将较为通用的概念放在靠前的位置上,而不是按照字母顺序来编排。这是因为将会把它翻译为多种语言,而在语言当中,这些概念有着不同的名称。在某些情况下,关于如何组织编排相应的条目,并不是显而易见的事情。对于此类情况,已经在合适的章节当中添加了“参阅”部分。

名称与项目

  • Wikimedia一项运动(参见详情)的名称。此项运动旨在通过Wikimedia项目,为公众提供自由知识。
  • Wikimedia projects (see for details) are free wikis with a specific purpose, usually divided into multiple individual wikis for each language, as with Wikipedia. Wikidata is a multilingual Wikimedia project. There are about 800 different wikis in total for Wikimedia projects. For now, only Wikimedia projects can be linked with Wikidata.

MediaWiki 是一种自由软件,并且是所有Wikimedia项目的基础。因为该软件是自由的,目前它拥有不同实体的数千个安装实例;相关详情请参见MediaWiki是什么

Wikibase 这是维基数据后台的软件。它是由Wikibase、Wikibase client和WikibaseLib三个MediaWiki扩展组成:

    1. The Wikibase extension (for the Wikidata server, often called repository or just repo) allows a dedicated MediaWiki installation to collect and maintain structured data and is used on the Wikidata website.
    2. The Wikibase client extension (often called just client) enables MediaWiki installations such as the Wikipedias to query and display data from a Wikidata server on its own pages, and will be deployed on Wikipedias in different languages, and probably on other sites.
    3. The WikibaseLib extension has common libraries for both of the major extensions.

Wikidata 即“维基数据”。这个Wikimedia项目运行的是一个采用了Wikibase扩展MediaWiki实例。它允许维基数据编者们录入数据和浏览页面

基本术语

  • Data and meta data

Data is raw information, like the words you are reading right now. Wikidata is essentially a collection of structured data, or database content. Those data are generally everything entered by the Wikidata editors and bots using the entity pages and the public programming interface. The wikipages from which a user can see and enter data are organized in three data namespaces:

  1. the main namespace (for items), regrouping pages in which we can see and enter information about a specific entity,
  2. the property namespace, in which we can see information about properties, which are used to structure the information we enter into statements and the
  3. query namespace, in which we can define additional ways to extract and display the information than the main namespace.

The data in those namespaces are said to be structured because they are all organized in a way that the Wikibase software uses to ensure a certain data model and because the community defines and enforces the correct ways to enter information.

Metadata in Wikidata is structured data, that can not be created or changed by users and bots but is created by the MediaWiki software. The revision history of pages is an example of metadata. The software generates the entries with time stamps and user names.

Other Wikidata pages are classical Wikipages and consist of unstructured data or semi-structured data (Q2336004) View with Reasonator See with SQID (for example: running text or wikitext), and are meta pages, such as community discussion pages.

Specifically, an important kind of data are property data. Property data are values associated with a property to build a Claim; they are an organisation unit of the structured data. Each property is assigned a Datatype, which defines the property data values that can be used in claims built with this property.

数据集 数据集一般指的是任何一套(结构化)数据。

A dataset is generally any collection of (structured) Data.

In Wikidata what is called a dataset is often associated to an entity: the dataset associated to an entity is all the information shown in the identity Wikipage (the set of statements in the database who have this entity as a subject, the Wikipedia links of articles describing this entity on Wikimedia projects, ...).

我们可以通过将若干实体的数据集组合起来而构建其他的数据集。

The datasets can be represented in different ways: as in their entity Wikipage in the form of an XML or JSON file for the robots and computing programs. Specifically in the Wikidata user interface messages, dataset refers to data associated to an entity (an item, a property or a query)

  • Dereferenceable URIs These are used during content negotiation to supply a resource description even if it is the entity itself that is addressed. This also makes it possible to supply a human-readable description or a machine readable one. The latter one would then be RDF data, according to what is more suitable. The content the dereferenced URIs point to will be available through the page Special:EntityData.
  • Export This refers to the way data and meta page content from Wikidata are made available for further consumption. The intention is to make machine-readable exports of the data available in widely used formats such as JSON or RDF/XML.
  • Linked data This is a method for publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful. It closely relates to how Wikidata works, by connecting entities and attaching data on linked data pages like Wikidata do for items.
  • Triplet (commonly called Triple) is how to store data as a single data entry in linked data. It consists of a subject, a predicate and an object. In Wikidata this corresponds roughly to the item, property and value.

本体 是对特定概念化体系明确的,形式化的规范说明。重要的一点就是,本体所承载和传达的是特定领域的共享理解。在维基数据之中,这是通过在语句当中使用属性来描述相对于对象和字面数据的(内部条目所指定的)外部实体而实现的。

  • Provenance is the history of the contributor who added a data, and of the source from which the data was extracted. Provenance is important in the case of the reuse of Open data datasets or external database use.
  • 词表 指的是用来描述本体的那套术语。一部词表当中所使用的术语可以与另一词表当中的一些术语相同(owl:sameAs)。相同性(sameness )比“等同性(equality)”更为严格。

网站链接

  • Sitelink (Interlanguage link; in the user interface called List of pages linked to this item) is an identification of a linked page on another site. It consists of a site identifier and a title, and are stored in individual items in Wikidata. They are used both for identifying an item from an external site, and as a central storage of interwiki (interlanguage) links. See Help:Sitelinks.
  • Site is a reference to an external website in general, but in sitelinks it refers to specific registered wikis, for example a Wikipedia language version. Those sites are referenced by global site identifiers or for short siteid, technically corresponding to the wiki's DBname. For example the Latin Wikipedia's siteid is lawiki. Each external page can have only one link registered in Wikidata and one item can only have one link to each external site.
  • Badges are a kind of marker attached to a sitelink, which could identify, for example, that the article is a "featured article" on a specific site. They do not describe the external entity but the page on the specific site.

命名空间

  • Page An internal or external webpage with a unique title, for example an article in Wikipedia main namespace or an item in Wikidata main namespace. In Wikidata, the term "page" may refer to an item or a property page in the data namespaces, a meta page in other namespaces or an external linked page on Wikipedia or other Wikimedia site or an other external site, that is referenced using a sitelink. Pages in the main namespace of Wikidata are about items, and one page can only hold one item.
  • Meta pages These are all pages that are not entities, i.e. do not belong to the data namespaces. Wikidata meta pages contain unstructured content represented by conventional MediaWiki code, and perhaps also future Wikidata client side inclusion code. Examples are talk pages, category pages, project pages (in the Wikidata namespace) and help pages (in the help namespace). Meta pages also comprise content and data automatically generated by the MediaWiki software (for example, the edit history of a page, or special pages).
  • Namespace - MediaWiki namespace (Q18889113) View with Reasonator See with SQID A physical division of pages in MediaWiki to group them according to overall use or some additional behavior. Examples are namespaces for categories, files, users, and in the case of Wikidata, three data namespaces: items (in the main namespace), properties and queries. See the list of namespaces.
  • Mainspace This is the namespace where all items are located. It is distinguished by its lack of a prefix.

实体、项、属性与查询

实体(在维基数据用户界面信息中有时称为数据集)是维基数据页面中的数据内容,且可以是一个(在主名字空间)、属性(在属性名字空间)或查询(在查询名字空间)。每个实体都由一个实体ID唯一确定,它是一个有前缀的数,例如项是前缀Q起始、属性是P而查询是U。一个实体亦可由各语言中唯一的标签描述的组合区分出来。还可为实体分配一组多语言的别名。(在本体和作为维基数据中的参考存在图书馆编目中,一个实体一般是现实生活一个话题或主题,或它在数据库中的表示,并且与之匹配的那个背景下维基数据中的的事物被称为一个

  • Item (in some languages translated to words for subject, object or element in the user interface) refers to a real-world object, concept, or event that is given an identifier (an equivalent of a name) in Wikidata together with information about it. Each item has a corresponding Wikipage in the Wikidata main namespace. Items are identified by a prefixed id (like Q5), or by a sitelink to an external page, or by a unique combination of multilingual label and description. Items may also have aliases to ease lookup. The main data part of an item is the list of statements about the item. An item can be viewed as the subject-part of a triplet in linked data.
  • Property (in some languages translated to attribute) is the descriptor for a data value, or some other relation or composite or possibly missing value, but not the data value or values themselves. Each statement at an item page links to a property, and assigns the property one or several values, or some other relation or composite or possibly missing value. The property is stored on a page in the Property namespace, and includes a declaration of the datatype for the property values. Compared to linked data, the property represents a triplet's predicate.
  • Query (future feature) is a predefined search across items. A query is the descriptor for the predefined search, but not the hits generated by the search. A query can be executed to acquire search results, which may be useful for automatic generation and translation of list articles. See Wikidata:Lists task force (Wikidata phase III). Each query is an Entity and described and defined on its own page, and has its own prefixed identifier.

Identifiers and languages

Many Wikimedia projects exist in different localised versions, but not Wikidata. Wikidata is multilingual, this means all parts of the user interface and also all the pages of data content can be translated into and used in many different languages. The users can determine their favorite languages. Wikidata is meant to treat all languages the same and to interconnect the knowledge of many languages allowing data content contributed in one language to be used in all the other languages as well. The users can translate all the pages into the different local languages and therefore improve the usability step by step.

  • Title This is the name of an external linked page (known as Sitelink-title), the name of a meta page, or the Entity ID of an entity page. If the page does not belong to the main namespace, the title includes the namespace name as prefix.
    1. For items, properties and queries, the Wikidata entity title is an identifier containing the namespace prefix (if any), followed by a letter and a numeric id. A title example is Property:P17 for a property, and Q6256 for an item. The page URL consists of www.wikidata.org/wiki/ followed by the title. In search results, the localized label (also known as name) is presented, followed by the identifier in parenthesis (without the namespace prefix), and by the description, to make the overall string more readable. For example, if you search for "country" using the Special:Search interface, the search result will include the property "country (P17): sovereign state of this item", as well as the item "country (Q6256), region legally identified as a distinct entity in political geography".
    2. Used for sitelinks the title is a canonical string that identifies a page on an external site. The Special:ItemByTitle interface may be used for searching a page by its title on a given Wikipedia. Together the site and title form the complete sitelink. During validation of the title the string will go through a normalization procedure, and in the end the title will be the external site's canonical page name. Only after the normalization is completed and site-specific constraints are satisfied a new sitelink can be stored.
    3. Used for an meta page in non-entity namespaces the title is spelled out as is and identifies the meta page. The namespace is normally prefixed to the string, and also to the URL. Title example is Wikidata:Glossary.
  • Language attributes
These are the language-specific labels, aliases and descriptions that are assigned to items, properties and queries. These are human-readable text to improve understanding of the scope of the item; for example the specific type of real world entity. If they are missing some of them can be replaced by strings from alternate languages, following the language fallback chains.
  • Language fallbacks (language chains)
These are methods to systematically replace missing language attributes with strings from alternate languages. The exact replacement rules can be chosen depending on the type of page, whether the user is logged in, or the user preferred languages.
  • Label
Also known as name (not to be confused with title), this is a language-specific name used for items, properties and queries. This is usually the most important name the entry is known under, or the most general or easily understandable phrase it will be known as internally to the project. Within Wikidata this takes the role of the title in Wikipedia and is used as the primary means to distinguish entries. For items it does not need to be unique, neither in the language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the description. For properties it must be unique within the given language. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved, although it may be removed in the future.
Labels should use the language specific conventions for capitalization of proper names and phrases as seems fit for the specific entry. In listings the label will be followed by the description so they join as a single list entry.
See Help:Label.
  • Description
This is a language-specific descriptive phrase for an item, property or query. It provides context for the label (for example, there are many items about places with the label "Cambridge"). The description therefore does not need to be unique, neither within a language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the label. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved.
See Help:Description for more information, including proper styling of descriptions.
  • Aliases
These are marked as Also known as in the user-interface. They are language-specific alternate labels and can be as many as necessary.
See Help:Aliases.

声称与声明

声明的元素

In order to use Wikidata, the knowledge contained in different sources must be decomposed. A source might read Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a composer who was born 27 January 1756 and died in 5 December 1791. We need to decompose the information contained in this sentence and transform it into claims and statements: name: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; date of birth: 27 January 1756; date of death: 5 December 1791; occupation: composer. Both claims and (Wikidata) statements are expressed into a so called statement to be used as linked data by external websites or organization, but they are slightly refined to fit their purpose in Wikidata. Usually the statement itself in linked data is described by a single triplet, but when the statement in itself is reified, it is possible to say something more about the statement. We may say it has a value, that is our original triple (or tuple to be more general), and we may say something about that value like when and how the value is recorded or measured. Such statements about a statement is in Wikidata called qualifiers to separate them more clearly from our statements. Without doing this it could be difficult to separate the different types of statements from each other.

Statements describing references for the particular reified statement can also be made. Those are also statements about statements, but they have different roles and are also given special names. This is done by adding references. References are also reified statements so we can make statements about them, that is we can give them qualifiers. Note that references are reified statements about reified statements. It is a good thing that we can talk about references with qualifiers, that makes it somewhat clearer. (Another way to say things about references is to give them their own items and to add statements about it.)

To implement the basic assertion, the core triplet or rather the duplet as the subject is given as the item itself, a small structure called a snak is used. Those come in several versions, each specialized for a single purpose. Statements hold such snaks, and they are also the inner parts of statements about statements that is qualifiers, references and ranks. Part of the specialization for snaks is that some of them can hold a value of a special type, a datatype. A snak will refuse to hold any other type than what it is configured to store.

During the lifetime of a statement it might be set to normal, until it is deemed preferred, and later on it might be replaced by a more up to date value and marked deprecated. Those values are nothing more than statements about the reified statement, but it is given its own name and appearance in the user interface.

  • 字符串是一个普遍使用的术语,用来指一个任意选取字符构成的序列,且被解析为文本(如“你好”)——与之对应的是一条被解析为数值的数据(3.14)、到其他项的链接(如[[Q1234]])或一个更复杂的数据类型(集{1,3,5,7})。维基数据将支持数据类型“单语言文本”和“多语言文本”,两者都被视为串数据类型及属性
  • Statement is a piece of data about an item, recorded on the item's page. A statement consists of a claim (a property-value pair such as "Location: Germany", together with optional qualifiers), augmented by optional references (giving the source for the claim) and an optional rank (used to distinguish between several claims containing the same property). Wikidata makes no assumptions about the correctness of statements, but merely collects and reports them with a reference to a source. See Data model and Help:Statements.
  • Values (or datavalues) are the information pieces embedded in each claim. Depending on their datatype, they can be a single value (like a number) or a value consisting of several parts (like a geographical position with longitude and latitude). In order to specify that a property has no value or a property's value is unknown, a marker (snak type) other than the default "custom value" may be selected:
Modify the snaktype (value/some value/no value) here.
  1. 无值 is a marker for when there certainly is no value for the property (example: if a human has no children, the corresponding item would receive this marker for child (P40)). Assigning the "no value" marker is a proper statement and is different to an item lacking a property. Latter implicates that it is unknown whether the property has no or some value.
  2. 未知值 is a marker for when there is some value but the exact value is not known for the property. "Some value" means that there is nothing known for the value except that it should exist and not imply a negation of the claim (example: if the date of a human's death is completely unknown the item would receive this marker for date of death (P570), denoting that the human is, in fact, dead — however, with the date of death being unknown).
  3. 自定义值 is a marker for when there is a known value for the property that can be specified. This is the default snak type when creating a snak/claim/statement.
  • Snak is a single, basic assertion in Wikidata, including property-value assertions, "no value" assertions, and others. Statements are composed of one-to-many snaks. Snaks are an integral part of the data model, but, normally, this term will not be exposed to editors and users of Wikidata. For more information, see mw:Wikibase/DataModel#Snaks.
  • Datatype (data value type or value type) is the kind of data values that may be assigned to a property, and specifies how the data values are stored in each claim. Each property is assigned a pre-defined datatype. Not all values can be linked, as long as there are certain datatypes missing. The development of new datatypes is still in progress. See also Special:ListDatatypes for currently available datatypes.
  • String (short for character string) is a general term for a sequence of freely chosen characters interpreted as text (e.g. "Hello") — as opposed to a value interpreted as a numerical value (3.14), a link to an item (e.g. [[Q1234]]) or a more complex datatype (the set {1,3,5,7} ). Wikidata will in addition to a string datatype support language specific texts; "monolingual-text" and "multilingual-text" as the value of a property.
  • 限定符声称的一部分,它们明确了关于某个声称的一些事项,通常以一种描述性的方式。一个限定符可以是一个词汇表中的术语但也可以是不同的描述性短语(这些术语或短语是任意文字还是一定是某个词汇表的一部分取决于维基数据社区)。

等级是一个质量系数,在给定属性有很多声明时,用于简单的选择/过滤这些声明。有三种可能的等级:

  1. Deprecated rank is used for a statement that contains information that may not be considered reliable or that is known to include errors. (For example, a statement that documents a wrong population figure that was published in some historic document. In this case the statement is not wrong – the historic document that is given as a reference really made the erroneous claim – but the statement should not be used in most cases.)
  2. Normal rank is used for a statement that contains relevant information that is believed to be correct, but may be too extensive to be shown by default. (For example, historic population figures for Berlin over the course of many years.)
  3. Preferred rank is used for a statement with the most important and most up-to-date information. Such a statement will be shown to all users and will be displayed in Wikipedia infoboxes by default. (For example, the most recent population figures for Berlin.)
  • Reference (or source) describes the origin of a statement in Wikidata. A reference is often an item in its own right; for example, a book. Wikidata does not aim to answer the question of whether a statement is correct, but merely whether the statement appears in a reference.
  • External identifier Some properties have values that are strings used in other organisations' databases to uniquely identify an item. For example, an ISBN for a book or the unique part of the URL of a movie or an actor in the Internet Movie Database.

Related terms

  • RDF/XML is a serialization format of RDF in XML; see RDF/XML.

另请参阅