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Вікідані:Глосарій

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Вікідані є базою знань, яку може редагувати кожен. Перед тим, як почати, добре б познайомитися із глосарієм Вікіданих. У такий спосіб дописувачі можуть говорити однією мовою, так би мовити. Ми сподіваємося, що це допоможе підняти дискусії на новий рівень і покращити взаєморозуміння між користувачами.

Глосарій (Glossary) упорядкований концептуально, а не за абеткою, найзагальніші концепції подано раніше. Це зроблено через те, що він автоматично перекладається різними мовами, а концепти у різних мовах мають різні назви. У деяких випадках не дуже очевидно, як упорядковувати записи. У такому разі у відповідному розділі додано "див. також".

Назви та проекти

  • Вікімедіа (Wikimedia) — назва руху (див.), що представляє суспільству вільні знання з допомогою проектів Вікімедіа.
  • Проекти Вікімедіа (див. детальніше) — вільні вікі-сайти спеціалізованого призначення, зазвичай поділені на декілька окремих розділів за мовним принципом, як у випадку Вікіпедії. Усього серед проектів Вікімедіа налічується близько 800 різних вікі. На цей час у Вікіданих можуть бути посилання лише на проекти Вікімедіа.
  • MediaWiki (медіавікі) — програмне забезпечення, на якому працюють усі проекти Вікімедіа, наприклад такі, як Вікіпедія і ВікіСховище; детальніше див. Що таке MediaWiki та.
  • Wikibase («вікі-база») — це програмне забезпечення для Вікіданих. Воно складається з трьох розширень MediaWiki: Wikibase, Wikibase client і WikibaseLib.
    1. Розширення Wikibase (стосовно сервера Вікіданих частіше називане репозитарієм або репоrepo) забезпечує для працюючої інсталяції MediaWiki можливість збору й управління структурованими даними; використовується на вебсайті Вікіданих.
    2. Розширення Wikibase client (частіше називане просто клієнтclient) дозволяє інсталяціям MediaWiki, таким як Вікіпедія, запитувати і відображати на своїх власних сторінках дані з сервера Вікіданих; воно використовується в різних мовних розділах Вікіпедії, а також в інших споріднених проектах.
    3. Розширення WikibaseLib містить загальні бібліотеки для основних розширень.

Вікідані (Wikidata) — проект Вікімедіа, що виконується на рушії MediaWiki з розширенням Wikibase, яке дозволяє редакторам Вікіданих вводити дані та переглядати сторінки проекту.

Основні поняття

Дані (Data)

data (Q42848) — інформація, занотована у певного виду коді. Вікідані є, по суті, колекцією структурованих даних, або вмісту бази даних. Ці дані є загалом усім, що вноситься дописувачами Вікіданих і ботами, з використанням сторінок сутностей (entity) і публічного програмного інтерфейсу. Вікісторінки, на яких користувач може бачити і вводити дані, зібрані у три простори назв даних:

  1. головний простір назв (для елементів (item)), у якому згруповані сторінки, на який ми можемо бачити і вводити інформацію про певну сутність ,
  2. простір назв властивості (property), у якому ми можемо бачити інформацію про властивості, що використовуються для структурування інформації, яка вводиться у твердження (statements) , і
  3. простір назв запитів (query), у якому ми можемо визначити додаткові шляхи витягу і відображення інформації, крім основного простору назв .

Дані у цих просторах назв вважаються структурованими, оскільки усі вони організовані таким чином, щоб програмне забезпечення Wikibase підтверджувало конкретну data model (Q1172480) View with Reasonator See with SQID, і оскільки спільнота обирає і впроваджує коректні шляхи введення інформації.

Data is raw information, like the words you are reading right now. Wikidata is essentially a collection of structured data, or database content. Those data are generally everything entered by the Wikidata editors and bots using the entity pages and the public programming interface. The wikipages from which a user can see and enter data are organized in three data namespaces:

  1. the main namespace (for items), regrouping pages in which we can see and enter information about a specific entity,
  2. the property namespace, in which we can see information about properties, which are used to structure the information we enter into statements and the
  3. query namespace, in which we can define additional ways to extract and display the information than the main namespace.

The data in those namespaces are said to be structured because they are all organized in a way that the Wikibase software uses to ensure a certain data model and because the community defines and enforces the correct ways to enter information.

Метадані у Вікіданих — це структуровані дані, які не можуть бути створені і змінені учасниками чи ботами, а створюються середовищем MediaWiki автоматично. Прикладом метаданих може служити історія змін сторінок. Програмне забезпечення само створює записи з указанням часу й імені учасника.

Інші сторінки Вікіданих є класичними вікісторінками, що містять неструктуровані дані чи semi-structured data (Q2336004) View with Reasonator See with SQID (наприклад, текст чи вікітекст), та мета-сторінками, як сторінки обговорень спільноти.

Зокрема, важливим видом даних є дані властивості. Дані властивості є значенням (value), прив'язаним до властивості для побудови заяви (claim), організаційної частинки структурованих даних; властивість асоційована з типом даних (datatypes), який визначає значення даних властивості, що можуть бути використані у заявах, побудованих з цією властивістю.

Набір даних (Dataset)

Набір даних є, в загальному, будь-якою колекцією (структурованих) даних.

A dataset is generally any collection of (structured) Data.

У Вікіданих те, що називають набором даних, є часто асоційованим з сутністю: набір даних, асоційований із сутністю, це вся інформація, що відображається в ідентичності вікісторінки (наборі тверджень у базі даних, для якої ця сутність є предметом, посилання на сторінки Вікіпедії, що описують цю сутність у проектах Вікімедіа, ...).

Ми можемо побудувати інші набори даних. об'єднуючи набори даних кількох сутностей.

Набори даних можуть бути представлені різними способами: як на вікісторінці сутності у формі XML- чи JSON-файлу для роботів і комп'ютерних програм. Зокрема у [$1 повідомленнях користувацького інтерфейсу] Вікіданих набір даних посилається на дані, асоційовані із сутністю (елемент, властивість чи запит)
  • Dereferenceable URIs These are used during content negotiation to supply a resource description even if it is the entity itself that is addressed. This also makes it possible to supply a human-readable description or a machine readable one. The latter one would then be RDF data, according to what is more suitable. The content the dereferenced URIs point to will be available through the page Special:EntityData.
  • Export This refers to the way data and meta page content from Wikidata are made available for further consumption. The intention is to make machine-readable exports of the data available in widely used formats such as JSON or RDF/XML.
  • Linked data This is a method for publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful. It closely relates to how Wikidata works, by connecting entities and attaching data on linked data pages like Wikidata do for items.
  • Triplet (commonly called Triple) is how to store data as a single data entry in linked data. It consists of a subject, a predicate and an object. In Wikidata this corresponds roughly to the item, property and value.
  • Ontology - ontology (Q324254) View with Reasonator See with SQID This is an explicit and formal specification of a conceptualization. It is important that an ontology convey a shared understanding of a domain. In Wikidata this would be given by using the properties and their intended meaning in statements to describe the real world entities and concepts, through their Wikidata counterpart, associated to literal data and other entities.
  • Provenance is the history of the contributor who added a data, and of the source from which the data was extracted. Provenance is important in the case of the reuse of Open data datasets or external database use.
  • Vocabulary This is the set of terms that is used to describe the ontology. The terms used in one vocabulary can be the same as (owl:sameAs) some terms from another vocabulary. Sameness is more strict than equality.

Посилання на сайти

  • Sitelink (Interlanguage link; in the user interface called List of pages linked to this item) is an identification of a linked page on another site. It consists of a site identifier and a title, and are stored in individual items in Wikidata. They are used both for identifying an item from an external site, and as a central storage of interwiki (interlanguage) links. See Help:Sitelinks.
  • Site is a reference to an external website in general, but in sitelinks it refers to specific registered wikis, for example a Wikipedia language version. Those sites are referenced by global site identifiers or for short siteid, technically corresponding to the wiki's DBname. For example the Latin Wikipedia's siteid is lawiki. Each external page can have only one link registered in Wikidata and one item can only have one link to each external site.
  • Badges are a kind of marker attached to a sitelink, which could identify, for example, that the article is a "featured article" on a specific site. They do not describe the external entity but the page on the specific site.

Простори назв

  • Page An internal or external webpage with a unique title, for example an article in Wikipedia main namespace or an item in Wikidata main namespace. In Wikidata, the term "page" may refer to an item or a property page in the data namespaces, a meta page in other namespaces or an external linked page on Wikipedia or other Wikimedia site or an other external site, that is referenced using a sitelink. Pages in the main namespace of Wikidata are about items, and one page can only hold one item.
  • Meta pages These are all pages that are not entities, i.e. do not belong to the data namespaces. Wikidata meta pages contain unstructured content represented by conventional MediaWiki code, and perhaps also future Wikidata client side inclusion code. Examples are talk pages, category pages, project pages (in the Wikidata namespace) and help pages (in the help namespace). Meta pages also comprise content and data automatically generated by the MediaWiki software (for example, the edit history of a page, or special pages).
  • Namespace - MediaWiki namespace (Q18889113) View with Reasonator See with SQID A physical division of pages in MediaWiki to group them according to overall use or some additional behavior. Examples are namespaces for categories, files, users, and in the case of Wikidata, three data namespaces: items (in the main namespace), properties and queries. See the list of namespaces.
  • Mainspace This is the namespace where all items are located. It is distinguished by its lack of a prefix.

Сутності, елементи, властивості та запити

  • Entity (in the Wikidata user interface messages sometimes called data set) is the data content of a Wikidata page, that either may be an item (in the main namespace), a property (in the property namespace) or a query (in the query namespace). Every entity is uniquely identified by an entity ID, which is a prefixed number, for example starting with the prefix Q for an item and P for a property. An entity is also identified by a unique combination of label and description in each language. An entity may have alternate aliases in multiple languages. Each entity has also a dereferenceable URI that follows the pattern http://www.wikidata.org/entity/ID where ID is its entity ID.
  • Item (in some languages translated to words for subject, object or element in the user interface) refers to a real-world object, concept, or event that is given an identifier (an equivalent of a name) in Wikidata together with information about it. Each item has a corresponding Wikipage in the Wikidata main namespace. Items are identified by a prefixed id (like Q5), or by a sitelink to an external page, or by a unique combination of multilingual label and description. Items may also have aliases to ease lookup. The main data part of an item is the list of statements about the item. An item can be viewed as the subject-part of a triplet in linked data.
  • Property (in some languages translated to attribute) is the descriptor for a data value, or some other relation or composite or possibly missing value, but not the data value or values themselves. Each statement at an item page links to a property, and assigns the property one or several values, or some other relation or composite or possibly missing value. The property is stored on a page in the Property namespace, and includes a declaration of the datatype for the property values. Compared to linked data, the property represents a triplet's predicate.
  • Query (future feature) is a predefined search across items. A query is the descriptor for the predefined search, but not the hits generated by the search. A query can be executed to acquire search results, which may be useful for automatic generation and translation of list articles. See Wikidata:Lists task force (Wikidata phase III). Each query is an Entity and described and defined on its own page, and has its own prefixed identifier.

Ідентифікатори та мови

Many Wikimedia projects exist in different localised versions, but not Wikidata. Wikidata is multilingual, this means all parts of the user interface and also all the pages of data content can be translated into and used in many different languages. The users can determine their favorite languages. Wikidata is meant to treat all languages the same and to interconnect the knowledge of many languages allowing data content contributed in one language to be used in all the other languages as well. The users can translate all the pages into the different local languages and therefore improve the usability step by step.

  • Title This is the name of an external linked page (known as Sitelink-title), the name of a meta page, or the Entity ID of an entity page. If the page does not belong to the main namespace, the title includes the namespace name as prefix.
    1. For items, properties and queries, the Wikidata entity title is an identifier containing the namespace prefix (if any), followed by a letter and a numeric id. A title example is Property:P17 for a property, and Q6256 for an item. The page URL consists of www.wikidata.org/wiki/ followed by the title. In search results, the localized label (also known as name) is presented, followed by the identifier in parenthesis (without the namespace prefix), and by the description, to make the overall string more readable. For example, if you search for "country" using the Special:Search interface, the search result will include the property "country (P17): sovereign state of this item", as well as the item "country (Q6256), region legally identified as a distinct entity in political geography".
    2. Used for sitelinks the title is a canonical string that identifies a page on an external site. The Special:ItemByTitle interface may be used for searching a page by its title on a given Wikipedia. Together the site and title form the complete sitelink. During validation of the title the string will go through a normalization procedure, and in the end the title will be the external site's canonical page name. Only after the normalization is completed and site-specific constraints are satisfied a new sitelink can be stored.
    3. Used for an meta page in non-entity namespaces the title is spelled out as is and identifies the meta page. The namespace is normally prefixed to the string, and also to the URL. Title example is Wikidata:Glossary.
  • Language attributes
These are the language-specific labels, aliases and descriptions that are assigned to items, properties and queries. These are human-readable text to improve understanding of the scope of the item; for example the specific type of real world entity. If they are missing some of them can be replaced by strings from alternate languages, following the language fallback chains.
  • Language fallbacks (language chains)
These are methods to systematically replace missing language attributes with strings from alternate languages. The exact replacement rules can be chosen depending on the type of page, whether the user is logged in, or the user preferred languages.
  • Label
Also known as name (not to be confused with title), this is a language-specific name used for items, properties and queries. This is usually the most important name the entry is known under, or the most general or easily understandable phrase it will be known as internally to the project. Within Wikidata this takes the role of the title in Wikipedia and is used as the primary means to distinguish entries. For items it does not need to be unique, neither in the language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the description. For properties it must be unique within the given language. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved, although it may be removed in the future.
Labels should use the language specific conventions for capitalization of proper names and phrases as seems fit for the specific entry. In listings the label will be followed by the description so they join as a single list entry.
See Help:Label.
  • Description
This is a language-specific descriptive phrase for an item, property or query. It provides context for the label (for example, there are many items about places with the label "Cambridge"). The description therefore does not need to be unique, neither within a language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the label. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved.
See Help:Description for more information, including proper styling of descriptions.

Синоніми, або ж альтернативні назви (т.зв. «аліаси» — aliases)

У користувацькому інтерфейсі вони позначені фразою «⧼wikibase-aliases-label⧽»). Це залежні від мови варіанти назв елементів (items), властивостей (properties) і запитів (queries), які можуть використовуватися для пошуку точно так само, як і мітки (labels) (назви). Синоніми схожі на мітки тим, що залежать від мови, але на відміну від міток можна задати будь-яке потрібне число синонімів.

Див. розділ довідки про синоніми.

See Help:Aliases.

Заяви та твердження

Елементи твердження

In order to use Wikidata, the knowledge contained in different sources must be decomposed. A source might read Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a composer who was born 27 January 1756 and died in 5 December 1791. We need to decompose the information contained in this sentence and transform it into claims and statements: name: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; date of birth: 27 January 1756; date of death: 5 December 1791; occupation: composer. Both claims and (Wikidata) statements are expressed into a so called statement to be used as linked data by external websites or organization, but they are slightly refined to fit their purpose in Wikidata. Usually the statement itself in linked data is described by a single triplet, but when the statement in itself is reified, it is possible to say something more about the statement. We may say it has a value, that is our original triple (or tuple to be more general), and we may say something about that value like when and how the value is recorded or measured. Such statements about a statement is in Wikidata called qualifiers to separate them more clearly from our statements. Without doing this it could be difficult to separate the different types of statements from each other.

Statements describing references for the particular reified statement can also be made. Those are also statements about statements, but they have different roles and are also given special names. This is done by adding references. References are also reified statements so we can make statements about them, that is we can give them qualifiers. Note that references are reified statements about reified statements. It is a good thing that we can talk about references with qualifiers, that makes it somewhat clearer. (Another way to say things about references is to give them their own items and to add statements about it.)

To implement the basic assertion, the core triplet or rather the duplet as the subject is given as the item itself, a small structure called a snak is used. Those come in several versions, each specialized for a single purpose. Statements hold such snaks, and they are also the inner parts of statements about statements that is qualifiers, references and ranks. Part of the specialization for snaks is that some of them can hold a value of a special type, a datatype. A snak will refuse to hold any other type than what it is configured to store.

During the lifetime of a statement it might be set to normal, until it is deemed preferred, and later on it might be replaced by a more up to date value and marked deprecated. Those values are nothing more than statements about the reified statement, but it is given its own name and appearance in the user interface.

  • Claim is a piece of data about the entity on whose page the claim appears. A claim consists of a property (such as "Location") and a value (e.g., "Germany"), or some other relation or composite or missing value. A claim can have qualifiers, such as temporal qualifiers saying that the claim is valid within a specific time frame. Compared to the triplets used in linked data, a claim uses a property to express the predicate of a triplet and a value to express the object of a triplet. Claims form part of statements on item pages, where they can be augmented with references and ranks; they can also occur on non-item data pages.
  • Statement is a piece of data about an item, recorded on the item's page. A statement consists of a claim (a property-value pair such as "Location: Germany", together with optional qualifiers), augmented by optional references (giving the source for the claim) and an optional rank (used to distinguish between several claims containing the same property). Wikidata makes no assumptions about the correctness of statements, but merely collects and reports them with a reference to a source. See Data model and Help:Statements.
  • Values (or datavalues) are the information pieces embedded in each claim. Depending on their datatype, they can be a single value (like a number) or a value consisting of several parts (like a geographical position with longitude and latitude). In order to specify that a property has no value or a property's value is unknown, a marker (snak type) other than the default "custom value" may be selected:
Modify the snaktype (value/some value/no value) here.
  1. Значення не задано is a marker for when there certainly is no value for the property (example: if a human has no children, the corresponding item would receive this marker for child (P40)). Assigning the "no value" marker is a proper statement and is different to an item lacking a property. Latter implicates that it is unknown whether the property has no or some value.
  2. Невідоме значення is a marker for when there is some value but the exact value is not known for the property. "Some value" means that there is nothing known for the value except that it should exist and not imply a negation of the claim (example: if the date of a human's death is completely unknown the item would receive this marker for date of death (P570), denoting that the human is, in fact, dead — however, with the date of death being unknown).
  3. Інше значення is a marker for when there is a known value for the property that can be specified. This is the default snak type when creating a snak/claim/statement.
  • Snak is a single, basic assertion in Wikidata, including property-value assertions, "no value" assertions, and others. Statements are composed of one-to-many snaks. Snaks are an integral part of the data model, but, normally, this term will not be exposed to editors and users of Wikidata. For more information, see mw:Wikibase/DataModel#Snaks.
  • Datatype (data value type or value type) is the kind of data values that may be assigned to a property, and specifies how the data values are stored in each claim. Each property is assigned a pre-defined datatype. Not all values can be linked, as long as there are certain datatypes missing. The development of new datatypes is still in progress. See also Special:ListDatatypes for currently available datatypes.
  • String (short for character string) is a general term for a sequence of freely chosen characters interpreted as text (e.g. "Hello") — as opposed to a value interpreted as a numerical value (3.14), a link to an item (e.g. [[Q1234]]) or a more complex datatype (the set {1,3,5,7} ). Wikidata will in addition to a string datatype support language specific texts; "monolingual-text" and "multilingual-text" as the value of a property.
  • Qualifier is a part of the claim that says something about the specific claim, often in a descriptive way. A qualifier might be a term according to a specific vocabulary but can also be a variant descriptive phrase (whether those terms or phrases are free text or part of some vocabulary would probably be up to the Wikidata community).
  • Rank is a quality factor used for simple selection/filtering in cases where there are many statements for a given property (see Help:Ranking). There are three possible ranks:
  1. Deprecated rank is used for a statement that contains information that may not be considered reliable or that is known to include errors. (For example, a statement that documents a wrong population figure that was published in some historic document. In this case the statement is not wrong – the historic document that is given as a reference really made the erroneous claim – but the statement should not be used in most cases.)
  2. Normal rank is used for a statement that contains relevant information that is believed to be correct, but may be too extensive to be shown by default. (For example, historic population figures for Berlin over the course of many years.)
  3. Preferred rank is used for a statement with the most important and most up-to-date information. Such a statement will be shown to all users and will be displayed in Wikipedia infoboxes by default. (For example, the most recent population figures for Berlin.)
  • Reference (or source) describes the origin of a statement in Wikidata. A reference is often an item in its own right; for example, a book. Wikidata does not aim to answer the question of whether a statement is correct, but merely whether the statement appears in a reference.
  • External identifier Some properties have values that are strings used in other organisations' databases to uniquely identify an item. For example, an ISBN for a book or the unique part of the URL of a movie or an actor in the Internet Movie Database.

Пов'язані поняття

  • RDF/XML — формат серіалізації RDF в XML; див. RDF/XML.

Див. також