Shortcut: WD:GLOSS

Wikidata: Glossario

From Wikidata
Jump to: navigation, search
This page is a translated version of the page Wikidata:Glossary and the translation is 36% complete.

Outdated translations are marked like this.
Other languages:
العربية • ‎azərbaycanca • ‎беларуская • ‎беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ • ‎বাংলা • ‎bosanski • ‎català • ‎čeština • ‎dansk • ‎Deutsch • ‎Zazaki • ‎dolnoserbski • ‎Ελληνικά • ‎English • ‎British English • ‎Esperanto • ‎español • ‎euskara • ‎فارسی • ‎suomi • ‎français • ‎Frysk • ‎ગુજરાતી • ‎עברית • ‎हिन्दी • ‎hornjoserbsce • ‎magyar • ‎Հայերեն • ‎interlingua • ‎Bahasa Indonesia • ‎Ilokano • ‎íslenska • ‎italiano • ‎日本語 • ‎ქართული • ‎한국어 • ‎Ripoarisch • ‎Latina • ‎Lëtzebuergesch • ‎lietuvių • ‎latviešu • ‎македонски • ‎മലയാളം • ‎Bahasa Melayu • ‎norsk bokmål • ‎Nederlands • ‎norsk nynorsk • ‎occitan • ‎ਪੰਜਾਬੀ • ‎polski • ‎پښتو • ‎português • ‎português do Brasil • ‎română • ‎русский • ‎Scots • ‎srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • ‎српски / srpski • ‎српски (ћирилица)‎ • ‎svenska • ‎Kiswahili • ‎ślůnski • ‎தமிழ் • ‎తెలుగు • ‎ไทย • ‎Türkçe • ‎українська • ‎اردو • ‎Tiếng Việt • ‎ייִדיש • ‎中文 • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎ • ‎中文(简体)‎ • ‎中文(繁體)‎

Wikidata es un base de cognoscentia que omnes pote rediger. Ante que tu initia es un bon idea familiarisar se con le Glossario de Wikidata. Per iste via, le redactores pote "parlar le mesme lingua". Nos spera que isto adjutara a meliorar le discussiones e le communicationes inter le redactores.

Le Glossario es arrangiate conceptualmente, con le conceptos le plus general presentate antea, non per ordine alphabetic. Pro que illo es rendite in plure linguas, e le conceptos ha nomines differente in le differente linguas. In alicun casos le maniera pro organisar le entratas non es obvie. In tal casos ha essite addite, un "vide alsi" al section appropriate.

Nomines e projectos

  • Wikimedia es le nomine de un movimento (vide pro le detalios) que provide, per le projectos de Wikimedia, cognoscentia libere al publico.
  • Le Projectos de Wikimedia (vide pro le detalios) es libere wikis con un proposito specific, usualmente dividite in plure wikis individual pro cata lingua, ut in Wikipedia. Wikidata es un projecto multilingual de Wikimedia. Il ha in total circa 800 wikis differente pro Wikimedia. Actualmente, sol le projectos de Wikimedia pote esser ligate a Wikidata.
  • MediaWiki es le software sur le qual es basate omne le projectos Wikimedia. Pois que le software es libere, il ha milles de installationes per differente entitates; vide Cosa es MediaWiki pro plus.
  • Wikibase es le software detra Wikidata. Illo consiste de tres Extensiones MediaWiki: Wikibase, Cliente Wikibase, e WikibaseLib:
    1. le Extension Wikibase (pro le server Wikidata, saepe appellate repository o solmente repo) permitte a un installation MediaWiki dedicate de colliger e mantener le datos structurate e es usate in le sito de Wikidata.
    2. Le Extension Cliente de Wikibase (often called just client) habilita le installationes de MediaWiki qual le Wikipedias a querer e monstrar le datos ex un server de Wikidata sur su paginas, e es in uso sur le Wikipedias, in linguas differente, e in alicun altere sitos soror.
    3. The Extension WikibaseLib ha librarias commun pro ambe le major extensiones.

Wikidata es un projecto de Wikimedia que exeque un instantia de MediaWiki con le Extensiones Wikibase. Illo permitte al Redactores de Wikidata de entrar le datos e leger le paginas.

Terminos basic

  • Datos e meta datos

Le datos es informationes notate in alicun sorta de codice. Wikidata es essentialmente un collection de datos structurate, o de contentos de base de datos. Celle datos es generalmente omne cosa entrate per le Redactores de Wikidata e le bots usante le paginas del entitates e le interfacie de programmation. Le wikipages per le qual un usator pote vider e entrar le data es organisate in tres spatios de nomine de datos:

  1. le spatio de nomine major (pro le elementos), regruppante paginas in le qual nos pote vider e inscriber informationes re un entitate specific, ,
  2. le spatio de nomine del proprietates, in le qual nos pote vider informationes re le #proprietates, que es usate pro structurar le informationes que nos entra in le #declarationes e le
  3. le spatio de nomine del requestas, in le qual nos pote definir manieras additional pro extraher e monstrar le informationes que le spatio de nomine principal. .

Le datos in ille spatio de nomine es denominate structurate quia illos es omne organisate in un maniera que le software de Wikibase assecura un certe modello de datos e pois que le communitate decide e reinfortia le manieras correcte pro entrar le informationes.

Le Metadatos in Wikidata es data structurate, que non pote esser create o mutate per le usatores e per le bots, sed es create per le software mediawiki. Un exemplo pro le metadatos es le le historia del revision del paginas. Le software genera le entratas con le marcas del tempore e le nomines del usatores.

Altere paginas de Wikidata es Paginas Wiki classic e consiste in datos non structurate o semi-structured data (Q2336004) View with Reasonator See with SQID (per exemplo: texto currente o texto wiki), e es meta paginas, como paginas de discussion de communitates.

Specificamente, un importante genere de datos es le datos del proprietate. Un dato de proprietate es un valor associate a un proprietate pro construer un Reclamation, un unitate de organisation del datos structurate. . Un proprietate es associate a un Typo de dato, que defini le valor del datos de proprietate que pote esser usate in le reclamationes construite con iste proprietate.

  • Dataset

A dataset es generalmente un collection de Datos (structurate).

In Wikidata lo que es nominate dataset es saepe associate a un entitate: le dataset associate a un entitate es omne le informationes monstrate in le identitate Wikipage (le set del declarationes in le base de datos que ha iste entitate como subjecto, le ligamines Wikipedia del articulos describente iste entitate sur le projectos Wikimedia, ...).

Nos pote construer altere datasets per combination de datasets de plure entitates.

Le datasets pote esser representate in manieras differente: qua in lor entitate Wikipage in le forma de un file XML o JSON pro le robotes e le programmas de computatores. Specificamente in le messages del interfacie del usator de Wikidata, le dataset se refere al datos associate a un entitate (un elemento, un proprietate o un requesta)

URIs De-referentia-bile istos es usate durante le negotiation del contentos pro fornir un description del ressources etsi il es le entitate mesme que es adressate. Isto alsi rende possibile fornir un description legibile al humanos o una legibile al machina. Le ultimos deberea esser ergo datos RDF, conforme a lo que es plus convenibile. Le contento al qual puncta le URIs de-refertiate essera disponibile per le pagina Special:EntityData.

  • Exporta Isto se refere al maniera per le qual es rendite disponibile le contento de datos e meta paginas ex Wikidata pro subsequente consumo. Le intento es de render exportationes legibile per machina del datos utilisabile in formatos largemente usate qual JSON o RDF/XML.
  • Datos ligate Isto es un methodo pro rediger datos structurate de maniera que illos pote esser interligate e devenir plus utile. Illo referer intimemente a como opera Wikidata, per connexion del entitates e attacha del datos sur le paginas del datos ligate similemente Wikidata face pro le elementos.
  • Tripletta (communmente appellate Tripla) es quomodo immagazinar datos como un entrata singule de datos in datos ligate. Illo consiste de un subjecto, un predicato e un objecto. In Wikidata istos corresponde grosso modo a Elemento, Proprietate e Valor.

Ontologia - ontologia (Q324254) ( Isto es un specification explicite e formal de un conceptualisation. il es importante que un ontologia traduce un intendimento in commun de un dominio. In Wikidata iste esserea esser date per usar le proprietates in declarationes a describer le entitates externe (date per elementos interne ) in relation al objectos e al datos litteral.

Provenientia Isto es le chronologia de proprietate o contributores (qua deberea esser le caso in in un projecto), e alsi desde le datos nasceva.

  • Vocabulario Isto es le serie del terminos que es usate pro describer le ontologia. Le terminos usate in un vocabulario pote esser identic al (owl:sameAs) alicun terminos ex un altere vocabulario. Sameness es plus stricte que la equalitate.

Ligamines a sitos

• Le Ligamine a sitos (in le Interfacie del Usator nominate Lista del paginas ligate a iste elemento) es un identification de unpagina ligate a un altere sito. Illo consiste de un identificator de sito e un titulo, e es immagazinate in individual elementos in Wikidata. Illos es usate ambe pro identificar un elemento ex un sito externe, e como un magazin central de (interlinguas) ligamines de interwiki. Vide Adjuta:Sitelinks.

  • • Sito es un referentia a un sito web externe in general, sed in sitelinks illo se refere a wikies registrate specific, per exemplo un version de lingua de Wikipedia. Ille sitos es referite per le identificator global de sitos o in breve siteid, technicamente correspondente al DBnamedel wiki. per exemplo le siteid de Wikipedia Latin es lawiki. Cata pagina externe pote haber sol un ligamine registrate in Wikidata e un elemento pote sol haber un ligamine con cata sito externe.
  • • Badges es un sorta de marcator attaccate a un sitelink, le qual poterea identificar, per exemplo, que le articulo es un "articulo characteristic" sur un site specific. Illos non describe le entitate externe sed le pagina sur le sito specific.

Spatios de nomine

  • • Pagina Un pagina web interne o externe con un titulo unic, per exemplo un articulo in le spatio de nomine principal de Wikipedia o un elemento in le spatio de nomine principal de Wikipedia. In Wikidata, le termino "pagina" pote referer se a un elemento o proprietate pagina in le spatios de nomines del datos, un meta pagina in altere spatios de nomines o un pagina ligate externe sur Wikipedia o altere sitosw de Wikimedia o un a;tere sito externe, referite per un ligamine a sitos. Le paginas in le spatio de nomines principal de Wikidata se refere al elementos, e un pagina pote continer sol un elemento.
  • • Metapaginas Iste es tote le paginas que non es entitates, i.e. non pertinente al spatios de nomines del datos. Le metapaginas de Wikidata contine contento non structurate representate per un codice MediaWiki conventional, e possibilemente etiam futur codices de Wikidata de inclusion al latere de clientes. Examplos es le paginas de desription, le paginas de categoria, le paginas de projecto (in le spatio de nomine de Wikidata) e le paginas de adjuta (in le spatio de nomine del adjuta). Le metapaginas comprende etiam le contento e le datos generate automaticamente per le software MediaWiki (per exemplo, le historia del modificationes de un pagina, o le paginas special).

• Spatio de nomines - Spatio de nomines de Mediawiki namespace (Q18889113) ( A division physic del paginas in MediaWiki pro gruppar illas in accordo al uso general o qualque comportamento adjunctive. Exemplos es le spatios de nomines pro le categorias, le files, le usatores, e in le caso de Wikidata, le tres spatios de nomines del datos: le elementos (in le spatio de nomines principal), le proprietates e le recercas. Vide le lista del spatios de nomines.

  • • Spatio principal Isto es le spatio de nomine ubi omne le elementos es locate. Illo es distinguite per su absentia de un prefixo.

Entitates, Elementos, Proprietates e Recercas

• Entitate (in le messages de interfacie del usator de Wikidata nominate alicun vices data set) es le datos contente in un pagina de Wikidata, que pote esser sia un elemento (in le spatio del nomines principal), o un proprietate (in le spatio del nomines del proprietates), sia un requesta (in le spatio del nomines del requestas). Cata entitate es identificate univocamente per un ID de identitate, le qual es un numero con un prefixo, per exemplo initiante per Q e P pro le proprietate. Un entitate es identificate alsi per un combination unic de etiquetta e description in cata lingua. Le entitate pote esser etiam assignate un gruppo de aliases alternative multilingual. Cata entitate ha etiam un URI dereferentiabile que seque le modello http://www.wikidata.org/entity/ID con le ID ID de identitate.

• Elemento (in alcun linguas rendite in parolas pro subjecto, objecto o elemento in le interface del usator) es un pagina in le spatio del nomines principal de Wikidata, que representa un topic concepto o subjecto del vita-real. Le elementos es identificate per un ID con un prefixo, o per un ID con un prefixo, o per un Ligamine a sitos a un pagina externe, o per un combination unic de etiquetta e description multilingual. Le elementos pote alsi haber aliases pro facilitar le lookup. Le principal parte de datos de un elemento es le lista del declarationes re le elemento. Un elemento pote esser viste como le parte subjecto de un tripletto in le datos ligate.

  • • Proprietate (rendite in alcun linguas a attributo) es le descriptor pro un valor de dato, o un altere relation o composite o possibilemente mancante valor, sed non le mesme valor del datos o valor. Cata declaration verso un pagina de un elemento liga a un proprietate, e assigna al proprietate uno o plus valores, o qualque altere relation o composite o possibilemente mancante valor. Le Proprietate es immagazinate sur un pagina in le Spatio del nomines del Proprietate, e include un declaration del Typo de dato pro le Valores del proprietates. Comparate al Datos ligate, le Proprietate representa il predicato de un tripletto.
  • • Requesta (characteristica futur) es un recerca prefixate a transverso del elementos. Un Requesta es le descriptor pro un recerca prefixate, ma non le occurrentias generate per le cerca mesme. Un Requesta pote esser executate pro acquirer le resultatos del cerca, que pote esser utile pro un generation e translation automatic del articulos del lista. Vider Wikidata:Lists task force (Wikidata phase III). Cata Requesta es un Entitate e describite e definite sur su proprie pagina, e ha su proprie identificator prefixate.

Identificatores e Linguas

multe projectos Wikimedia existe in differente versiones localisate, sed non Wikidata. Wikidata es multilingual, isto significa que omne le partes del Interfacie del Usator e etiam omne le paginas del datos contente pote esser rendite e usate in multe linguas differente. Le usatores pote determinar lor linguas favorite . Wikidata es destinate a tractar omne le linguas al mesme modo e a interconnecter le cognoscentia de multe linguas permittente de usar etiam in omne le altere linguas le contento de datos contribuite in un lingua. Le usatores pote render omne le paginas in le differente linguas local e dunque affinar le usabilitate passo a passo.

  • Titulo Isto es le nomine de un Pagina ligate externe (note qual Sitelink-title), le nomine de un meta page, o le Entity ID de un pagina de entity. Si le pagina non pertine al spatio de nomine principal, le titulo include le nomine del spatio de nomine qual prefixo.
    1. 1. Pro le Elementos, le Proprietates e le Recercas, le Titulo del Entitate de Wikidata es un identificator continente le prefixo del spatio de nomines (si alicun), succedite per un littera e un ID numeric. Un exemplo de titulo es Property:P17 pro un proprietate, e Q6256 pro un elemento. Le URL del pagina consiste de www.wikidata.org/wiki/ succedite per le titulo. In search results, the localized label (also known as name) is presented, followed by the identifier in parenthesis (without the namespace prefix), and by the description, to make the overall string more readable. For example, if you search for "country" using the Special:Search interface, the search result will include the property "country (P17): sovereign state of this item", as well as the item "country (Q6256), region legally identified as a distinct entity in political geography".
    2. Used for sitelinks the title is a canonical string that identifies a page on an external site. The Special:ItemByTitle interface may be used for searching a page by its title on a given Wikipedia. Together the site and title form the complete sitelink. During validation of the title the string will go through a normalization procedure, and in the end the title will be the external site's canonical page name. Only after the normalization is completed and site-specific constraints are satisfied a new sitelink can be stored.
    3. Used for an meta page in non-entity namespaces the title is spelled out as is and identifies the meta page. The namespace is normally prefixed to the string, and also to the URL. Title example is Wikidata:Glossary.
  • Language attributes
These are the language-specific labels, aliases and descriptions that are assigned to items, properties and queries. These are human-readable text to improve understanding of the scope of the item; for example the specific type of real world entity. If they are missing some of them can be replaced by strings from alternate languages, following the language fallback chains.
  • Language fallbacks (language chains)
These are methods to systematically replace missing language attributes with strings from alternate languages. The exact replacement rules can be chosen depending on the type of page, whether the user is logged in, or the user preferred languages.
  • Label
Also known as name (not to be confused with title), this is a language-specific name used for items, properties and queries. This is usually the most important name the entry is known under, or the most general or easily understandable phrase it will be known as internally to the project. Within Wikidata this takes the role of the title in Wikipedia and is used as the primary means to distinguish entries. For items it does not need to be unique, neither in the language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the description. For properties it must be unique within the given language. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved, although it may be removed in the future.
Labels should use the language specific conventions for capitalization of proper names and phrases as seems fit for the specific entry. In listings the label will be followed by the description so they join as a single list entry.
See Help:Label.
  • Description
This is a language-specific descriptive phrase for an item, property or query. It provides context for the label (for example, there are many items about places with the label "Cambridge"). The description therefore does not need to be unique, neither within a language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the label. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved.
See Help:Description for more information, including proper styling of descriptions.
  • Aliases
These are marked as Also known as in the user-interface. They are language-specific alternate labels and can be as many as necessary.
See Help:Aliases.

Claims and statements

Elements of a statement

In order to use Wikidata, the knowledge contained in different sources must be decomposed. A source might read Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a composer who was born 27 January 1756 and died in 5 December 1791. We need to decompose the information contained in this sentence and transform it into claims and statements: name: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; date of birth: 27 January 1756; date of death: 5 December 1791; occupation: composer. Both claims and (Wikidata) statements are expressed into a so called statement to be used as linked data by external websites or organization, but they are slightly refined to fit their purpose in Wikidata. Usually the statement itself in linked data is described by a single triplet, but when the statement in itself is reified, it is possible to say something more about the statement. We may say it has a value, that is our original triple (or tuple to be more general), and we may say something about that value like when and how the value is recorded or measured. Such statements about a statement is in Wikidata called qualifiers to separate them more clearly from our statements. Without doing this it could be difficult to separate the different types of statements from each other.

Statements describing references for the particular reified statement can also be made. Those are also statements about statements, but they have different roles and are also given special names. This is done by adding references. References are also reified statements so we can make statements about them, that is we can give them qualifiers. Note that references are reified statements about reified statements. It is a good thing that we can talk about references with qualifiers, that makes it somewhat clearer. (Another way to say things about references is to give them their own items and to add statements about it.)

To implement the basic assertion, the core triplet or rather the duplet as the subject is given as the item itself, a small structure called a snak is used. Those come in several versions, each specialized for a single purpose. Statements hold such snaks, and they are also the inner parts of statements about statements that is qualifiers, references and ranks. Part of the specialization for snaks is that some of them can hold a value of a special type, a datatype. A snak will refuse to hold any other type than what it is configured to store.

During the lifetime of a statement it might be set to normal, until it is deemed preferred, and later on it might be replaced by a more up to date value and marked deprecated. Those values are nothing more than statements about the reified statement, but it is given its own name and appearance in the user interface.

  • Claim is a piece of data about the entity on whose page the claim appears. A claim consists of a property (such as "Location") and a value (e.g., "Germany"), or some other relation or composite or missing value. A claim can have qualifiers, such as temporal qualifiers saying that the claim is valid within a specific time frame. Compared to the triplets used in linked data, a claim uses a property to express the predicate of a triplet and a value to express the object of a triplet. Claims form part of statements on item pages, where they can be augmented with references and ranks; they can also occur on non-item data pages.
  • Statement is a piece of data about an item, recorded on the item's page. A statement consists of a claim (a property-value pair such as "Location: Germany", together with optional qualifiers), augmented by optional references (giving the source for the claim) and an optional rank (used to distinguish between several claims containing the same property). Wikidata makes no assumptions about the correctness of statements, but merely collects and reports them with a reference to a source. See Data model and Help:Statements.
  • Values (or datavalues) are the information pieces embedded in each claim. Depending on their datatype, they can be a single value (like a number) or a value consisting of several parts (like a geographical position with longitude and latitude). In order to specify that a property has no value or a property's value is unknown, a marker (snak type) other than the default "custom value" may be selected:
Modify the snaktype (value/some value/no value) here.
  1. No value is a marker for when there certainly is no value for the property (example: if a human has no children, the corresponding item would receive this marker for child (P40)). Assigning the "no value" marker is a proper statement and is different to an item lacking a property. Latter implicates that it is unknown whether the property has no or some value.
  2. Unknown value is a marker for when there is some value but the exact value is not known for the property. "Some value" means that there is nothing known for the value except that it should exist and not imply a negation of the claim (example: if the date of a human's death is completely unknown the item would receive this marker for date of death (P570), denoting that the human is, in fact, dead — however, with the date of death being unknown).
  3. Custom value is a marker for when there is a known value for the property that can be specified. This is the default snak type when creating a snak/claim/statement.
  • Snak is a single, basic assertion in Wikidata, including property-value assertions, "no value" assertions, and others. Statements are composed of one-to-many snaks. Snaks are an integral part of the data model, but, normally, this term will not be exposed to editors and users of Wikidata. For more information, see mw:Wikibase/DataModel#Snaks.
  • Datatype (data value type or value type) is the kind of data values that may be assigned to a property, and specifies how the data values are stored in each claim. Each property is assigned a pre-defined datatype. Not all values can be linked, as long as there are certain datatypes missing. The development of new datatypes is still in progress. See also Special:ListDatatypes for currently available datatypes.
  • String (short for character string) is a general term for a sequence of freely chosen characters interpreted as text (e.g. "Hello") — as opposed to a value interpreted as a numerical value (3.14), a link to an item (e.g. [[Q1234]]) or a more complex datatype (the set {1,3,5,7} ). Wikidata will in addition to a string datatype support language specific texts; "monolingual-text" and "multilingual-text" as the value of a property.
  • Qualifier is a part of the claim that says something about the specific claim, often in a descriptive way. A qualifier might be a term according to a specific vocabulary but can also be a variant descriptive phrase (whether those terms or phrases are free text or part of some vocabulary would probably be up to the Wikidata community).
  • Rank is a quality factor used for simple selection/filtering in cases where there are many statements for a given property (see Help:Ranking). There are three possible ranks:
  1. Deprecated rank is used for a statement that contains information that may not be considered reliable or that is known to include errors. (For example, a statement that documents a wrong population figure that was published in some historic document. In this case the statement is not wrong – the historic document that is given as a reference really made the erroneous claim – but the statement should not be used in most cases.)
  2. Normal rank is used for a statement that contains relevant information that is believed to be correct, but may be too extensive to be shown by default. (For example, historic population figures for Berlin over the course of many years.)
  3. Preferred rank is used for a statement with the most important and most up-to-date information. Such a statement will be shown to all users and will be displayed in Wikipedia infoboxes by default. (For example, the most recent population figures for Berlin.)
  • Reference (or source) describes the origin of a statement in Wikidata. A reference is often an item in its own right; for example, a book. Wikidata does not aim to answer the question of whether a statement is correct, but merely whether the statement appears in a reference.
  • External identifier Some properties have values that are strings used in other organisations' databases to uniquely identify an item. For example, an ISBN for a book or the unique part of the URL of a movie or an actor in the Internet Movie Database.

Related terms

  • RDF/XML is a serialization format of RDF in XML; see RDF/XML.

See also