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ويكي بيانات:فهرس المصطلحات

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ويكي بيانات هي قاعدة معرفة يمكن لأي شخص أن يعدلها. تعرف بنفسك على فهرس المصطلحات حتى يتسنى للجميع استخدام نفس المصطلحات، مما يحسن التواصل بين المحررين والمطورين.

فهرس المصطلحات تم ترتيبه حسب المفهوم بدلاً من الأبجدية، حيث وضعت المفاهيم الأكثر عمومية مقدمة عن الأخرى قدر الإمكان. وذلك لأنها ترجمت إلى عدة لغات، ولأن لها أسماء مختلفة في لغات مختلفة. في بعض الحالات، فإنه ليس من الواضح كيفية تنظيم هذه الإدخالات، حينها يضاف "انظر أيضا" إلى القسم المناسب.

أسماء ومشاريع

  • ويكيميديا هو اسم حركة (طالع لمزيد من التفاصيل) التي توفر المعرفة الحرة للجمهور من خلال مشاريع ويكيميديا.
  • مشاريع ويكيميديا (طالع لمزيد من التفاصيل) هي مشاريع ويكي حرة مع غرض محدد، تقسم عادة إلى ويكيات منفردة متعددة اللغات، كما هو الحال مع ويكيبيديا. لكن ويكي بيانات مختلف عن مشاريع ويكيميديا متعددة اللغات. وهناك حوالي 800 موقع ويكي مختلفة في مجموع مشاريع ويكيميديا. حتى الآن فقط مشاريع ويكيميديا يمكن ربطها بويكي بيانات.
  • ميديا ويكي هو البرنامج الذي تستند إليه جميع مشاريع ويكيميديا. كما أن برنامج مجاني، وهناك الآلاف من التركيبات للكيانات المختلفة. طالع ما هو ميدياويكي للمزيد من المعلومات.
  • Wikibase هو برنامج وراء ويكي بيانات. وهو يتألف من ثلاثة ملحقات ميدياويكي: Wikibase، وWikibase client، وWikibaseLib:
    1. Wikibase extension (for the Wikidata server, often called repository or just repo) allows a dedicated MediaWiki installation to collect and maintain structured data and is used on the Wikidata website.
    2. ملحق عميل Wikibase تمكن تركيبات ميديا ويكي مثل ويكيبيديا من استعلام وعرض البيانات من خادم ويكي بيانات على صفحاتها الخاصة. وتستخدم في مواقع ويكيبيديا بمختلف لغاتها ومواقع أخرى شقيقة.
    3. The WikibaseLib extension has common libraries for both of the major extensions.

ويكي بياناتهو مشروع ويكيميديا الذي يعمل في ميديا ويكي مع ملحقات Wikibase. تسمح لمحرري ويكي بيانات إدخال البيانات وتصفح الصفحات.

مصطلحات أساسية

  • Data and meta data

Data is raw information, like the words you are reading right now. Wikidata is essentially a collection of structured data, or database content. Those data are generally everything entered by the Wikidata editors and bots using the entity pages and the public programming interface. The wikipages from which a user can see and enter data are organized in three data namespaces:

  1. the main namespace (for items), regrouping pages in which we can see and enter information about a specific entity,
  2. the property namespace, in which we can see information about properties, which are used to structure the information we enter into statements and the
  3. query namespace, in which we can define additional ways to extract and display the information than the main namespace.

The data in those namespaces are said to be structured because they are all organized in a way that the Wikibase software uses to ensure a certain data model and because the community defines and enforces the correct ways to enter information.

Metadata in Wikidata is structured data, that can not be created or changed by users and bots but is created by the MediaWiki software. The revision history of pages is an example of metadata. The software generates the entries with time stamps and user names.

Other Wikidata pages are classical Wikipages and consist of unstructured data or semi-structured data (Q2336004) View with Reasonator See with SQID (for example: running text or wikitext), and are meta pages, such as community discussion pages.

Specifically, an important kind of data are property data. Property data are values associated with a property to build a Claim; they are an organisation unit of the structured data. Each property is assigned a Datatype, which defines the property data values that can be used in claims built with this property.

  • مجموعة البيانات - Dataset

مجموعة البيانات عموماً هي أي جمع (منظم) من البيانات.

In Wikidata what is called a dataset is often associated to an entity: the dataset associated to an entity is all the information shown in the identity Wikipage (the set of statements in the database who have this entity as a subject, the Wikipedia links of articles describing this entity on Wikimedia projects, ...).

يمكننا بناء قواعد البيانات الأخرى بدمج مجموعة بيانات بمدخلات عدة.

The datasets can be represented in different ways: as in their entity Wikipage in the form of an XML or JSON file for the robots and computing programs. Specifically in the Wikidata user interface messages, dataset refers to data associated to an entity (an item, a property or a query)

  • Dereferenceable URIs These are used during content negotiation to supply a resource description even if it is the entity itself that is addressed. This also makes it possible to supply a human-readable description or a machine readable one. The latter one would then be RDF data, according to what is more suitable. The content the dereferenced URIs point to will be available through the page Special:EntityData.
  • Export This refers to the way data and meta page content from Wikidata are made available for further consumption. The intention is to make machine-readable exports of the data available in widely used formats such as JSON or RDF/XML.
  • البيانات المرتبطة - Linked data هذه هي طريقة نشر البيانات المنظمة بحيث يمكن مترابطة وأكثر فائدة. It closely relates to how Wikidata works, by connecting entities and attaching data on linked data pages like Wikidata do for items.
  • Triplet - ثلاثي هي طريقة لتخزين البيانات في كيان واحد في البيانات المرتبطة. تتكون من a subject, a predicate and an object. في ويكي بيانات هذا يعادل تقريبا عنصر، وخاصية، وvalue.
  • Ontology - ontology (Q324254) View with Reasonator See with SQID This is an explicit and formal specification of a conceptualization. It is important that an ontology convey a shared understanding of a domain. In Wikidata this would be given by using the properties and their intended meaning in statements to describe the real world entities and concepts, through their Wikidata counterpart, associated to literal data and other entities.
  • Provenance is the history of the contributor who added a data, and of the source from which the data was extracted. Provenance is important in the case of the reuse of Open data datasets or external database use.
  • Vocabulary This is the set of terms that is used to describe the ontology. The terms used in one vocabulary can be the same as (owl:sameAs) some terms from another vocabulary. Sameness is more strict than equality.

روابط أقسام الموقع

  • Sitelink (Interlanguage link; in the user interface called List of pages linked to this item) is an identification of a linked page on another site. It consists of a site identifier and a title, and are stored in individual items in Wikidata. They are used both for identifying an item from an external site, and as a central storage of interwiki (interlanguage) links. See Help:Sitelinks.
  • Site is a reference to an external website in general, but in sitelinks it refers to specific registered wikis, for example a Wikipedia language version. Those sites are referenced by global site identifiers or for short siteid, technically corresponding to the wiki's DBname. For example the Latin Wikipedia's siteid is lawiki. Each external page can have only one link registered in Wikidata and one item can only have one link to each external site.
  • Badges are a kind of marker attached to a sitelink, which could identify, for example, that the article is a "featured article" on a specific site. They do not describe the external entity but the page on the specific site.

أسماء النطاقات

  • Page An internal or external webpage with a unique title, for example an article in Wikipedia main namespace or an item in Wikidata main namespace. In Wikidata, the term "page" may refer to an item or a property page in the data namespaces, a meta page in other namespaces or an external linked page on Wikipedia or other Wikimedia site or an other external site, that is referenced using a sitelink. Pages in the main namespace of Wikidata are about items, and one page can only hold one item.
  • Meta pages These are all pages that are not entities, i.e. do not belong to the data namespaces. Wikidata meta pages contain unstructured content represented by conventional MediaWiki code, and perhaps also future Wikidata client side inclusion code. Examples are talk pages, category pages, project pages (in the Wikidata namespace) and help pages (in the help namespace). Meta pages also comprise content and data automatically generated by the MediaWiki software (for example, the edit history of a page, or special pages).
  • Namespace - MediaWiki namespace (Q18889113) View with Reasonator See with SQID A physical division of pages in MediaWiki to group them according to overall use or some additional behavior. Examples are namespaces for categories, files, users, and in the case of Wikidata, three data namespaces: items (in the main namespace), properties and queries. See the list of namespaces.
  • Mainspace This is the namespace where all items are located. It is distinguished by its lack of a prefix.

مدخلات، عناصر، خواص وأستعلامات

Every entity is uniquely identified by an entity ID, which is a prefixed number, for example starting with the prefix Q for an item and P for a property. An entity is also identified by a unique combination of تسمية ووصف in each language. An entity may have alternate اسماء مستعارة in multiple languages. Each entity has also a dereferenceable URI that follows the pattern where ID is its entity ID.

  • عناصر - Item يشير إلى كائن في العالم، أو حدث، أو مفهوم يعطى معرف (يعادل اسمه) في ويكي بيانات، إلى جانب المعلومات حوله. كل عنصر يقابله صفحة في النطاق الرئيسي لويكي بيانات. تُعرف العناصر بواسطة البادئة التي تسبق معرفاتها (مثل Q5) أو بواسطة وصلات إلى صفحة خارجية، أو عن طريق مزيج فريد من التسميات والأوصاف بمختلف اللغات. وقد تحتوي العناصر على تسميات أخرى مستعارة لتسهيل البحث عنها. جزء البيانات الرئيسي لأي عنصر هو "البيانات". ويمكن الاطلاع على هذه الثلاثة العناصر مجزئة لثلاثة أقسام من البيانات المرتبطة.

Property - الخواصis the descriptor for a data value, or some other relation or composite or possibly missing value, but not the data value or values themselves. Each statement at an item page links to a property, and assigns the property one or several values, or some other relation or composite or possibly missing value. The property is stored on a page in the Property namespace, and includes a declaration of the datatype for the property values. Compared to linked data, the property represents a triplet's predicate.

Query - استعلام (future feature) is a predefined search across items. A query is the descriptor for the predefined search, but not the hits generated by the search. A query can be executed to acquire search results, which may be useful for automatic generation and translation of list articles. See Wikidata:Lists task force (Wikidata phase III). Each query is an Entity and described and defined on its own page, and has its own prefixed identifier.

معرفات ولغات

توجد العديد من مشاريع ويكيميديا في مختلف إصداراتها بمختلف اللغات، ولكن ليس ويكي بيانات، حيث أن ويكي بيانات غير متعدد اللغات، وهذا يعني أن جميع أجزاء واجهة المستخدم، وجميع صفحات محتويات البيانات يمكن أن تترجم إلى العديد من اللغات المختلفة. بحيث يمكن للمستخدمين تحديد اللغات المفضلة لديهم. ويفترض أن يكون ويكي بيانات قابلاً للتعامل مع جميع اللغات، وكذلك ربط المعرفة بالعديد من اللغات مما يسمح بتقديم البيانات في أي لغة ومشاهدتها بجميع اللغات الأخرى، ويمكن للمستخدمين ترجمة كل الصفحات إلى اللغات المختلفة، وبالتالي تحسين قابليتها للاستخدام خطوة بخطوة.

العنوان This is the name of an external linked page (known as Sitelink-title), the name of a meta page, or the Entity ID of an entity page. If the page does not belong to the main namespace, the title includes the namespace name as prefix.

    1. title - العنوان أو كيان ويكي بيانات المستخدم للعناصر، والخواص والاستعلامات، هو معرف يحتوي على بادئة نطاق الاسم (إن وجدت)، يليه رسالة ومعرف رقمي. مثال لعنوان خاصية هو "Property:P17"، و مثال لعنصر "Q6256". تتكون وصلة الصفحة من متبوعاً بالعنوان. في نتائج البحث، تكون التسميات في المقدمة متبوعة بمعرف بين قوسين (دون بادئة نطاق الاسم)، وتتبع أيضاً ب الأوصاف، لجعل السلسلة الناتجة أكثر قابلية للقراءة. على سبيل المثال، إذا كنت تبحث عن "بلد" باستخدام واجهة خاص:بحث، ستتضمن نتيجة البحث خاصية "البلد (P17)" وأيضاً عنصر "البلد (Q6256)".
    2. Used for sitelinks the title is a canonical string that identifies a page on an external site. The Special:ItemByTitle interface may be used for searching a page by its title on a given Wikipedia. Together the site and title form the complete sitelink. During validation of the title the string will go through a normalization procedure, and in the end the title will be the external site's canonical page name. Only after the normalization is completed and site-specific constraints are satisfied a new sitelink can be stored.
    3. Used for an meta page in non-entity namespaces the title is spelled out as is and identifies the meta page. The namespace is normally prefixed to the string, and also to the URL. Title example is Wikidata:Glossary.
  • سمات اللغة
هذه هي اللغات المحددة للتسميات، والاسماء المستعارة والأوصاف التي يتم تحديدها للعناصر، والخواص والاستعلامات. وهي نصوص يمكن قراءته بواسطة الإنسان من أجل تحسين فهم نطاق هذه البنود، على سبيل المثال يمكن الاستعاضة عن تسمية مفقودة بتسمية من اللغات الأخرى البديلة.
  • لغات بديلة (سلاسل اللغات)
هذه الطريقة تستخدم لاستبدال التسميات الغير موجودة بلغات بديلة. ويمكن اختيار قواعد الاستبدال على حسب نوع الصفحة، سواء قام المستخدم بتسجيل الدخول، أم من خلال تفضيل اللغات.

Label - تسمية

Also known as name (not to be confused with title), this is a language-specific name used for items, properties and queries. This is usually the most important name the entry is known under, or the most general or easily understandable phrase it will be known as internally to the project. Within Wikidata this takes the role of the title in Wikipedia and is used as the primary means to distinguish entries. For items it does not need to be unique, neither in the language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the description. For properties it must be unique within the given language. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved, although it may be removed in the future.
Labels should use the language specific conventions for capitalization of proper names and phrases as seems fit for the specific entry. In listings the label will be followed by the description so they join as a single list entry.
انظر مساعدة:تسمية.

Description - وصف

This is a language-specific descriptive phrase for an item, property or query. It provides context for the label (for example, there are many items about places with the label "Cambridge"). The description therefore does not need to be unique, neither within a language or the overall project, but it must be unique together with the label. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is a hard constraint that must be satisfied before a change can be saved.
طالع Help:Description لمزيد من المعلومات، بما في ذلك التصميم السليم من الأوصاف.
  • Aliases - اسم مستعار
وتعرف بـ "Also known as" في واجهة المستخدم. وهي بدائل التسميات في لغة معينة ويمكن أن توسع حسب لزم الأمر.
انظرمساعدة:أسماء مستعارة.

إدعائات وبيانات

عناصر البيانات

من أجل استخدام ويكي بيانات، يجب أن تكون المعرفة مضمنة في مصارد مختلفة، المصدر يمكن أن يكون كان فولفغانغ أماديوس موتسارت ملحن، ولد 27 يناير 1756 وتوفي في 5 ديسمبر 1791. يجب تحليل تلك البيانات وتحويلها إلى إدعاءات وبيانات: الاسم: فولفغانغ أماديوس موتسارت، تاريخ الولادة: 27 يناير 1756، تاريخ الوفاة، 5 ديسمبر 1791، المهنة: ملحن. كلا الادعاءات وبيانات ويكي بيانات يعبر عنها بواسطة ما يسمى "البيانات" لاستخدامها بالبيانات المرتبطة من مواقع أو مؤسسات خارجية، ولكنها منقحة قليلاً لتناسب ويكي بيانات. عادة البيانات نفسها في البيانات المرتبطة توصف بصف ثلاثي، ولكن عندما يكون البيان نفسه reified، فمن الممكن أن يبدي معلومات أكثر عن البيانات.

We may say it has a value, that is our original triple (or tuple to be more general), and we may say something about that value like when and how the value is recorded or measured. Such statements about a statement is in Wikidata called qualifiers to separate them more clearly from our statements. Without doing this it could be difficult to separate the different types of statements from each other.

Statements describing references for the particular reified statement can also be made. Those are also statements about statements, but they have different roles and are also given special names. This is done by adding references. References are also reified statements so we can make statements about them, that is we can give them qualifiers. Note that references are reified statements about reified statements. It is a good thing that we can talk about references with qualifiers, that makes it somewhat clearer. (Another way to say things about references is to give them their own items and to add statements about it.)

To implement the basic assertion, the core triplet or rather the duplet as the subject is given as the item itself, a small structure called a snak is used. Those come in several versions, each specialized for a single purpose. Statements hold such snaks, and they are also the inner parts of statements about statements that is qualifiers, references and ranks. Part of the specialization for snaks is that some of them can hold a value of a special type, a datatype. A snak will refuse to hold any other type than what it is configured to store.

During the lifetime of a statement it might be set to normal, until it is deemed preferred, and later on it might be replaced by a more up to date value and marked deprecated. Those values are nothing more than statements about the reified statement, but it is given its own name and appearance in the user interface.

Claim - إدعاء is a piece of data about the entity on whose page the claim appears. A claim consists of a property (such as "Location") and a value (e.g., "Germany"), or some other relation or composite or missing value. A claim can have qualifiers, such as temporal qualifiers saying that the claim is valid within a specific time frame. Compared to the triplets used in linked data, a claim uses a property to express the predicate of a triplet and a value to express the object of a triplet. Claims form part of statements on item pages, where they can be augmented with references and ranks; they can also occur on non-item data pages.

Statement - بيانات is a piece of data about an item, recorded on the item's page. A statement consists of a claim (a property-value pair such as "Location: Germany", together with optional qualifiers), augmented by optional references (giving the source for the claim) and an optional rank (used to distinguish between several claims containing the same property). Wikidata makes no assumptions about the correctness of statements, but merely collects and reports them with a reference to a source. See Data model and Help:Statements.

Values - قيم (or datavalues) are the information pieces embedded in each claim. Depending on their datatype, they can be a single value (like a number) or a value consisting of several parts (like a geographical position with longitude and latitude). In order to specify that a property has no value or a property's value is unknown, a marker (snak type) other than the default "custom value" may be selected:

تعديل snaktype (القيمة / بعض القيمة / لا قيمة) هنا.
  1. لا قيمة is a marker for when there certainly is no value for the property (example: if a human has no children, the corresponding item would receive this marker for child (P40)). Assigning the "no value" marker is a proper statement and is different to an item lacking a property. Latter implicates that it is unknown whether the property has no or some value.
  2. قيمة مجهولة is a marker for when there is some value but the exact value is not known for the property. "Some value" means that there is nothing known for the value except that it should exist and not imply a negation of the claim (example: if the date of a human's death is completely unknown the item would receive this marker for date of death (P570), denoting that the human is, in fact, dead — however, with the date of death being unknown).
  3. قيمة مخصصة is a marker for when there is a known value for the property that can be specified. This is the default snak type when creating a snak/claim/statement.
  • Snak is a single, basic assertion in Wikidata, including property-value assertions, "no value" assertions, and others. Statements are composed of one-to-many snaks. Snaks are an integral part of the data model, but, normally, this term will not be exposed to editors and users of Wikidata. For more information, see mw:Wikibase/DataModel#Snaks.
  • Datatype (data value type or value type) is the kind of data values that may be assigned to a property, and specifies how the data values are stored in each claim. Each property is assigned a pre-defined datatype. Not all values can be linked, as long as there are certain datatypes missing. The development of new datatypes is still in progress. See also Special:ListDatatypes for currently available datatypes.

سلسلة - String (اختصاراً لجملة character string) is a general term for a sequence of freely chosen characters interpreted as text (e.g. "Hello") — as opposed to a value interpreted as a numerical value (3.14), a link to an item (e.g. [[Q1234]]) or a more complex datatype (the set {1,3,5,7} ). Wikidata will in addition to a string datatype support language specific texts; "monolingual-text" and "multilingual-text" as the value of a property.

تصفيات - Qualifier هي أحد أجزاء الإدعائات that says something about the specific claim, often in a descriptive way. A qualifier might be a term according to a specific vocabulary but can also be a variant descriptive phrase (whether those terms or phrases are free text or part of some vocabulary would probably be up to the Wikidata community).

مرتبة - Rank is a quality factor used for simple selection/filtering in cases where there are many statements for a given property (see Help:Ranking). There are three possible ranks:

مرتبة مهملة - Deprecated rank is used for a statement that contains information that may not be considered reliable or that is known to include errors. (For example, a statement that documents a wrong population figure that was published in some historic document. In this case the statement is not wrong – the historic document that is given as a reference really made the erroneous claim – but the statement should not be used in most cases.)

مرتبة عادية - Normal rank is used for a statement that contains relevant information that is believed to be correct, but may be too extensive to be shown by default. (For example, historic population figures for Berlin over the course of many years.)

مرتبة مفضلة - Preferred rank is used for a statement with the most important and most up-to-date information. Such a statement will be shown to all users and will be displayed in Wikipedia infoboxes by default. (For example, the most recent population figures for Berlin.)

مراجع - Reference (أو مصادر source) describes the origin of a statement in Wikidata. A reference is often an item in its own right; for example, a book. Wikidata does not aim to answer the question of whether a statement is correct, but merely whether the statement appears in a reference.

  • معرف خارجي بعض الخواص تحتوي على قيم "سلسلة" مستخدمة في قواعد بيانات منظمات أخرى، لتحديد معرف فريد للعنصر. على سبيل المثال، رقم ISBN لكتاب أو جزء فريد من وصلة فيلم أو وصلة ممثل في قاعدة بيانات الأفلام على الإنترنت.

عناصر مرتبطة

  • RDF/XML is a serialization format of RDF in XML; see RDF/XML.

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