Property talk:P1196

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Documentation

manner of death
circumstances of a person's death; one of: natural causes, accident, suicide, homicide, pending investigation or special 'unknown value'. Use 'cause of death' (P509) for more immediate or underlying causes and events, e.g. heart attack, car accident
Descriptionthe item which best describes the circumstances of a person's death
Representsmanner of death (Q2438541)
Data typeItem
Domainperson (Q215627), living thing group (Q16334298), group of fictional characters (Q14514600), character that may be fictional (Q21070598), organism (Q7239) and fictional character (Q95074)
Allowed valuesnatural causes (Q3739104), accident (Q171558), suicide (Q10737), homicide (Q149086), pending investigation (Q15729048), capital punishment (Q8454), unknown, unnatural death (Q855919), euthanasia (Q100159) and death in battle (Q18663901)
ExampleAdolf Eichmann (Q28085)capital punishment (Q8454)
Heinrich Himmler (Q43067)suicide (Q10737)
Paul Walker (Q213864)accident (Q171558)
Lou Gehrig (Q357444)natural causes (Q3739104)
John F. Kennedy (Q9696)homicide (Q149086)
Sourcehttp://www.documentcloud.org/documents/29467-death-cert.html
Tracking: usageno label (Q45328507)
See alsocause of death (P509), military casualty classification (P1347), last words (P3909)
Lists
Proposal discussionProperty proposal/Archive/20#P1196
Current uses69,401
Search for values
[create] Create a translatable help page (preferably in English) for this property to be included here
One of natural causes (Q3739104), accident (Q171558), suicide (Q10737), homicide (Q149086), pending investigation (Q15729048), capital punishment (Q8454), somevalue, unnatural death (Q855919), euthanasia (Q100159), death in battle (Q18663901): value must be one of the specified items. Please expand list if needed. (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist.
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P1196#One of, values statistics, SPARQL, SPARQL (new)
Single value: this property generally contains a single value. (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist.
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P1196#Single value, SPARQL, SPARQL (new)
Type “person (Q215627), living thing group (Q16334298), group of fictional characters (Q14514600), character that may be fictional (Q21070598), organism (Q7239), fictional character (Q95074): element must contain property “instance of (P31)” with classes “person (Q215627), living thing group (Q16334298), group of fictional characters (Q14514600), character that may be fictional (Q21070598), organism (Q7239), fictional character (Q95074)” or their subclasses (defined using subclass of (P279)). (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist. Known exceptions: Jovian (Q18536420)
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P1196#Type Q215627, Q16334298, Q14514600, Q21070598, Q7239, Q95074, SPARQL, SPARQL (new)
Item “date of death (P570): Items with this property should also have “date of death (P570)”. (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist.
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P1196#Item P570, SPARQL, SPARQL (new)
Item “instance of (P31): Items with this property should also have “instance of (P31)”. (Help)
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P1196#Item P31, hourly updated report, search, SPARQL, SPARQL (new)
Scope is: the property must be used by specified way only (Help)
Exceptions are possible as rare values may exist.
List of this constraint violations: Database reports/Constraint violations/P1196#scope, SPARQL (new)
Value disease (Q12136) will be automatically replaced to value natural causes (Q3739104).
Testing: TODO list

Value illness (Q814207) will be automatically replaced to value natural causes (Q3739104).
Testing: TODO list

Value old age (Q191089) will be automatically replaced to value natural causes (Q3739104).
Testing: TODO list

Value execution (Q3966286) will be automatically replaced to value capital punishment (Q8454).
Testing: TODO list

Value accidental death (Q21142718) will be automatically replaced to value accident (Q171558).
Testing: TODO list

Value murder (Q132821) will be automatically replaced to value homicide (Q149086).
Testing: TODO list

Value mass murder (Q750215) will be automatically replaced to value homicide (Q149086).
Testing: TODO list

Value attack (Q81672) will be automatically replaced to value homicide (Q149086).
Testing: TODO list

Value assassination (Q3882219) will be automatically replaced to value homicide (Q149086).
Testing: TODO list

Value terrorist attack (Q5710433) will be automatically replaced to value homicide (Q149086).
Testing: TODO list

Value traffic crash (Q9687) will be automatically replaced to value traffic crash (Q9687) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value cancer (Q12078) will be automatically replaced to value cancer (Q12078) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value myocardial infarction (Q12152) will be automatically replaced to value myocardial infarction (Q12152) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value AIDS (Q12199) will be automatically replaced to value AIDS (Q12199) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value defenestration (Q220277) will be automatically replaced to value defenestration (Q220277) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value respiratory failure (Q767485) will be automatically replaced to value respiratory failure (Q767485) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value hanging (Q175111) will be automatically replaced to value hanging (Q175111) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value conflagration (Q168983) will be automatically replaced to value conflagration (Q168983) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value execution by firing squad (Q216169) will be automatically replaced to value execution by firing squad (Q216169) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value drive-by shooting (Q1259359) will be automatically replaced to value ballistic trauma (Q2140674) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value guillotine (Q128015) will be automatically replaced to value decapitation (Q204933) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value decapitation (Q204933) will be automatically replaced to value decapitation (Q204933) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value train wreck (Q1078765) will be automatically replaced to value train wreck (Q1078765) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value killed in action (Q210392) will be automatically replaced to value killed in action (Q210392) and moved to military casualty classification (P1347) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value bicycle accident (Q15809226) will be automatically replaced to value bicycle accident (Q15809226) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value aviation accident (Q744913) will be automatically replaced to value aviation accident (Q744913) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value ship accident (Q2235325) will be automatically replaced to value ship accident (Q2235325) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value plane crash (Q3002150) will be automatically replaced to value aviation accident (Q744913) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value drug overdose (Q3505252) will be automatically replaced to value drug overdose (Q3505252) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value drowning (Q506616) will be automatically replaced to value drowning (Q506616) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value death by burning (Q468455) will be automatically replaced to value death by burning (Q468455) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Value horse fall (Q2967712) will be automatically replaced to value horse fall (Q2967712) and moved to cause of death (P509) property.
Testing: TODO list

Pictogram voting comment.svg Missing manner of death (P1196), deducable from cause of death (P509)
Entites from whose cause of death the manner is deducable (Help)
Violations query: SELECT DISTINCT ?item { VALUES ?manner { wd:Q10737 wd:Q3739104 wd:Q171558 wd:Q149086 wd:Q15729048 wd:Q8454 } . ?item wdt:P509/wdt:P279+ ?manner . MINUS { ?item wdt:P1196 [] } }
List of this constraint violations: [[Wikidata:Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P1196#Missing manner of death (P1196), deducable from cause of death (P509)|Database reports/Complex constraint violations/P1196#Missing manner of death (P1196), deducable from cause of death (P509)]]

Specificity[edit]

Wouldn't this property be too limiting when only the values mentioned above are allowed? Is there another way of describing that a person died due to a specific form of accident (e.g. aviation accident, car accident, etc.)? —Wylve (talk) 06:11, 20 March 2014 (UTC)

@Wylve: just add the missing item to the list of allowed values. For instance, aviation accident (Q744913) is missing but it actually describes a particular circumstance of a person's death, so feel free to add it in the list before using in biographical items with P1196. — TintoMeches, 20:33, 20 March 2014 (UTC)
As I have noticed in the property creation discussion, the current allowed values are chosen based on the allowed parameters on a US death certificate, so, I am not really sure if I should add new allowed values without a community discussion. —Wylve (talk) 09:34, 21 March 2014 (UTC)
I don't think it's necessary to start a new discussion for every single improvement. In case someone disagrees, in my mind it would be easier to remove the "controversial item" and then discuss about readding it. — TintoMeches, 21:32, 21 March 2014 (UTC)
Wylve, TintoMeches, this property is intended to be quite broad, and is also, importantly, mapped to values available in 'Manner of death' field of the US Standard Death Certificate. Please see the creation discussion at Wikidata:Property_proposal/Archive/20#manner_of_death for the rationale. I have restored the original set of 'allowed values' per that discussion. More specific causes of death should be captured by cause of death (P509). Emw (talk) 18:20, 10 May 2014 (UTC)

Execution?[edit]

What’s the correct value for executions? Neither of natural causes (Q3739104), accident (Q171558), suicide (Q10737), homicide (Q149086), pending investigation (Q15729048) seem to fit. I tried to find an example, but the first three I could think of – Marie Antoinette (Q47365), Louis XVI of France (Q7732), John Wayne Gacy (Q298252) – all are missing a manner of death (P1196) statement (they do have cause of death (P509)). —DSGalaktos (talk) 13:32, 12 July 2015 (UTC)

I really think this should be added, as well as options for people who are killed in action and die of wounds. I've been adding killed in action (Q210392) because I didn't realize there was such a short list of possible values. The rationale that this is following the US Standard Death Certificate doesn't hold, because different ones are issued for people who die in warfare, and in all but a few US states people who are legally executed are marked as such. (Besides, I don't think following US rules should be seen as an end, rather than as a means to standardize.) Innotata (talk) 21:43, 29 July 2015 (UTC)
  • capital punishment (Q8454)? Feel free to click edit on the top of the page and add it. --- Jura 04:24, 30 July 2015 (UTC)
  • Innotata, see military casualty classification (P1347), which is designed for values like "killed in action" and "died of wounds". Manner of death can often be inferred from military casualty classification, or both can be applied when a value for the latter doesn't entail a value for the former. I agree that following US rules should not be an end in itself, and instead a means to standardize. That said, I think we should be extremely hesitant to deviate from this controlled vocabulary, as a separate property can often be used, and adhering to mature standards that are used in the field is very valuable. Emw (talk) 01:56, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
  • These standards are used in a limited field, though: one that entirely excludes military personnel, and has a difficult time with executions. Wikidata doesn't have such a limited scope. Innotata (talk) 03:55, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
The field is actually extremely broad, and does not exclude military personnel nor have a difficult time with executions -- at least in English. The manner of death values permitted in the US Standard Death Certificate (accident, suicide, homicide, natural causes, undetermined) fairly neatly overlaps with those permitted in the US Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry (accident, suicide, homicide, illness, hostile, pending investigation, unknown) used to classify deaths of military personnel. Regarding executions, the reporting in that Houston Chronicle article your reference -- "Death certificates of executed inmates may change" -- isn't really reliable. It clearly confuses the distinct concepts "cause of death" and "manner of death". "Legal execution" may well be used in most "Cause of death" fields in US death certificates, but the manner would still be "homicide". The article also doesn't state whether the bill passed and became a law. Even if that state law did pass, it wouldn't be recognized federally, which is the better authority to consult at least as far as United States standards are concerned. Emw (talk) 04:50, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
DSGalaktos, the correct manner of death (P1196) value for executions is homicide (Q149086). All executions are instances of killing of a human by a human, i.e. homicide. The human committing the homicide is the executioner. Emw (talk) 01:56, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
homicide (Q149086): We would need to create another item for that as this might work for enwiki, but not necessarily in other languages. It's just absurd if you read es:Homicidio. --- Jura 03:16, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
I had this concern too. Besides, classifying executions and deaths in action as homicides would be uncomfortably close to a value judgment on capital punishment and on those killed in action; it could be perceived quite badly. Innotata (talk) 03:55, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
For reference, the word "homicide" in modern English is specifically and intentionally neutral in its judgment of intentionality -- it includes intentional (e.g. murder) and unintentional killing. Thanks, Jura, for the note about es:Homicidio. Is there a concept in Spanish that encompasses any type of killing of a human by a human -- legal, illegal, intentional or unintentional? Emw (talk) 04:50, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
It's not just Spanish, look through the interwikis. --- Jura 04:54, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
Other than the literal translation, is there a reference for your definition? Even https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/homicide doesn't mention it. --- Jura 11:38, 31 July 2015 (UTC)
Here is a reference that would support your POV: https://netforum.avectra.com/temp/ClientImages/NAME/38c0f1d2-11ec-45c7-80ca-ff872d0b22bc.pdf#page=12
However, this doesn't apply in general. A reference for Texas[1]: "The death certificate of a decedent [..] who was lawfully executed shall classify the manner of death as death caused by judicially ordered execution.". Apparently this was changed 10 years ago as the use of the term "homicide" as considered disrespectful. [2]: ".. changes the terminology used on certificates of death in death penalty executions from homicide as the cause of death to death caused by legally authorized execution." --- Jura 09:11, 16 August 2015 (UTC)

Death by accident[edit]

There is an inconsistency in the allowed values. Most are specifically related to death (Q4) (death): natural causes (Q3739104), suicide (Q10737), homicide (Q149086) and pending investigation (Q15729048).

But the value accident (Q171558) (accident) is also an option, while in most cases accident (Q171558) does not lead to death (Q4). It would be better to replace that by a more specific value accidental death (Q21142718) for "accidental death". --Paulbe (talk) 18:01, 18 October 2015 (UTC)

Going purely off the label, I would prefer “fatal accident” to “accidental death”. The item should be about the cause, not the death. —Galaktos (talk) 18:16, 18 October 2015 (UTC)
ok for me. --- Jura 23:37, 30 October 2015 (UTC)

Combinations manner of death/cause of death[edit]

It seems that some entries in P1196 should go into P509 (e.g. execution by firing squad). For a current list, I added a query in the template above. --- Jura 23:37, 30 October 2015 (UTC)

New value for qualifier determination method (P459): mapping from cause of death (Q21668548)[edit]

mapping from cause of death (Q21668548) can be used to indicate that manner of death was derived from cause of death (P509).

Obviously, some causes of death can't be mapped 1:1 to manner of death: "ballistic trauma" could be anything except natural causes (Q3739104). --- Jura 11:18, 6 December 2015 (UTC)

Indirect suicide or homicide by instruction by the victim?[edit]

Here the situation: On Once Upon a Time (Q23673), Killian Jones (Q20001183) instructed Emma Swan (Q20001135) to stab him with Excalibur to get rid of darkness, and she complied and stabbed him, killing him. Now, what manner of death should I put down for Killian? --AmaryllisGardener talk 03:31, 7 December 2015 (UTC)

accepted values[edit]

I want to reaffirm the fact that this property can be used with only four values: natural causes, suicide, homicide, and accident, and that any others such as "assasination" Q81672 should be moved to "cause of death" Property:P509, as per the descriptions on this page, the discussion of creation at Wikidata:Property_proposal/Archive/20#manner_of_death, and the description of P509, and that using any other value than the four is never "more correct." --Haplology (talk) 14:16, 30 March 2016 (UTC)

There is "pending investigation" and "capital punishment" as well. I cleaned up a few some time ago ..
--- Jura 14:20, 17 May 2016 (UTC)

massive replace Murder → Homicide[edit]

copy from User talk:Jura1.

Hello. You now replaced "Murder" → "Homicide". Where is consensus about it? The en:Homicide marked as original research (WP:OR), no verification, also in ru:Гомицид no one source. But many changed personalities is very nationally significant. Also, many infoboxes can have support of field "murder", but have not for this WP:OR. --Vladis13 (talk) 18:45, 19 September 2016 (UTC)

In ru-wikipedia is consensus for undo this edits. --Vladis13 (talk) 20:40, 19 September 2016 (UTC)
You need to reach consensus on this project. Sjoerd de Bruin (talk) 21:06, 19 September 2016 (UTC)
  • I'm mainly fixing some of the constraint violations. It's possible that the Russian label of the item we are using isn't ideal and it isn't linking to the right article on ruwiki. I can skip Q43989 if this is a problem for now.
    --- Jura 21:32, 19 September 2016 (UTC)
    • en:Homicide = ru:Гомицид. But I found that English "murder" is premeditated killing, but Russian interwiki "убийство" includes also the casual killing. You make this edit via US Standard Death Certificate "(accident, suicide, homicide, natural causes, undetermined)", but in Russian Medical Standard Death Certificateform p.15 writen "(несчастный случай, убийство, самоубийство, в ходе военных, террористических действий или род смерти не установлен)". Also, interwiki en:Negligent homicide = ru:Непреднамеренное убийство (by this term has a law in en:Criminal Code of Russia). Then need change interwiki убийство → homicide, but translate it as "murder" is well-established. --Vladis13 (talk) 23:47, 19 September 2016 (UTC)
Meaning of the "убийство" that includes the casual killing was in Criminal Laws of ex-USSR. In today Russia the law "Непреднамеренное убийство" replaced wording "Causing death by negligence" (law #109 of Criminal Code of Russia), and "убийство" is almost synonym of "murder" (the premeditated killing). But the wording remains as current law in some countries of the ex-USSR, e.g. acting in Laws of Ukraine (law #119). --Vladis13 (talk) 20:10, 22 September 2016 (UTC)
Null uses of word "homicide" in Laws and Codexes of Russia. --Vladis13 (talk) 18:45, 21 September 2016 (UTC)
  • @Vladis13: Instead of Q149086, I think it would be worth using a new item for "homicide" that is not linked to various Wikipedia articles with random scopes.
    --- Jura 07:02, 22 September 2016 (UTC)
    • en:Homicide = ru:Гомицид, new item will confuse interwikies (their 34). We do not know what kind of special meaning to each of them. --Vladis13 (talk) 20:29, 22 September 2016 (UTC)
      • No. The new item will have a clear definition and no interwikis (or only interwikis to article that actually match. What an item means depends on its definition at Wikidata and not what articles currently linked from it may state.
        --- Jura 17:33, 24 September 2016 (UTC)
  • On ru-talk say that on international level (see book of en:UNODC) the "homicide" meaning the unlawful causing death to human. But only in englo-american laws it means any causing death to human. --Vladis13 (talk) 20:29, 22 September 2016 (UTC)
    • We can use this as a basis. The new item would be called "homicide" and for "intentional homicide", "killings in self-defence" only? Non-intentional would probably end up in "accident" or "accidental death"?
      --- Jura 17:48, 24 September 2016 (UTC)

lynching[edit]

This should be allowed. Thanks, GerardM (talk) 07:29, 8 June 2018 (UTC)


homicide by ..[edit]

No idea where these would be mentioned on death certificates. As I don't recall these being discussed, I removed them. --
--- Jura 07:18, 7 July 2018 (UTC)

  • They're types of manner of death. - Bossanoven (talk) 07:39, 9 July 2018 (UTC)
  • Where do you draw this definition from? A homicide by a child is appears as a homicide on death certificates. No need to use "matricide", "patricide", etc.
    --- Jura 10:07, 9 July 2018 (UTC)
@Jura1: These are all clearly defined, mutually exclusive terms. - Bossanoven (talk) 10:38, 9 July 2018 (UTC)
The proposal for this property included a reference for the values to use. Please provide one for your improvement suggestion.
--- Jura 10:44, 9 July 2018 (UTC)
  • As we still lack the refs, I restored the version. Maybe "killed by" could be qualified in the way you prefer.
    --- Jura 06:00, 17 August 2018 (UTC)

Killing of non-human animals[edit]

What is the right manner of death for Fido (Q4483493), stabbed but not homicide? Ghouston (talk) 03:53, 18 July 2018 (UTC)

@Ghouston: unnatural death (Q855919). - Bossanoven (talk) 13:19, 20 July 2018 (UTC)
Yes, I saw that one, but with the description "category used by coroners and vital statistics specialists" I wasn't sure if it was appropriate. Ghouston (talk) 03:18, 21 July 2018 (UTC)
manner of death (P1196) on Fido (Q4483493) is also failing a constraint, apparently because a dog is not a person, a "living thing group", or a fictional character. Ghouston (talk) 03:20, 21 July 2018 (UTC)

Question[edit]

Hello. Why Q149086 is accepted and Q132821 not? The first one is a legal calification also. --Millars (talk) 11:42, 20 July 2018 (UTC)

@Millars: No, homicide is a manner of death. That's just the way it is. - Bossanoven (talk) 13:22, 20 July 2018 (UTC)
Then, if it would be interesting for the element to say that it was a magnicide, or a terrorist attacck, or gender violence, or an assasinate, or an homicide (the legal therm), how can we say that? --Millars (talk) 17:01, 20 July 2018 (UTC)
@Millars: It would really need to be addressed on a case-by-case basis, but in most cases it would probably be homicide for manner of death. - Bossanoven (talk) 17:09, 20 July 2018 (UTC)
@Bossanoven:, at least in my country (Spain) homicide is not the same as assasinate. In my opinion we should be the most specific as we can. --Millars (talk) 17:59, 20 July 2018 (UTC)

Decapitation[edit]

Hello, what does represent "Decapitation " within manners of death? I selected Decapitation but it gave in issue an issue and it was not reflected on the relevent article . --Abu aamir (talk) 13:07, 13 August 2018 (UTC) @Abu aamir: It is a cause of death rather than a manner of death. - Bossanoven (talk) 15:43, 14 August 2018 (UTC)

Automatic creation from cause of death (P509)[edit]

I added single rule for automatic creation of this property. More rules can be added if needed. — Ivan A. Krestinin (talk) 10:31, 22 July 2018 (UTC)

Property scope constraint[edit]

My edit - revision 728642456 - is necessary, and I provided a specific reason why: namely, to allow categories such as Category:People executed by hanging to be restricted to the appropriate category, i.e. humans whose manner of death is execution. @Jura1: provided 2 reasons for reverting the edit: (1) seems to be the exception (2) it's non mandatory anyways. Neither of these is a justification for the reversion. If it is a useful exception, why should the category not have increased scope? If it is non-mandatory, why bother with any scoping at all, and in particular why bother reverting my edit to make the scope smaller? T0mpr1c3 (talk) 15:54, 18 August 2018 (UTC)

  • Non-mandatory means that the constraint can have exceptions. These can be listed explicitly on the property or not.
    Users sufficiently proficient to add the "category contains"-property shouldn't need property constraints to guide themselves. As that property isn't using qualifiers in a standard way, they are likely to know about this.
    If we allow the property as a qualifier on any statement, errors like the ones on Constraint violations/P1196#"Scope" violations become more likely (all but 3 are not categories, there are 60000 uses of the property) and non-proficient users adding them have no way of identifying their error.
I find it odd that one would relax the constraint without cleaning up the clearly incorrect uses. The purpose of constraints is to improve data quality, not to have zero violations.
--- Jura 16:52, 18 August 2018 (UTC)
@Jura1: I don't understand your reasoning, but if you say these exceptions are not problematic then I will just go ahead and generate more of them and not worry about it. T0mpr1c3 (talk) 22:03, 20 August 2018 (UTC)