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Help:来源

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Sources and the translation is 37% complete.

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The majority of statements on Wikidata should be verifiable insofar as they are supported by referenceable sources of information such as a book, scientific publication, or newspaper article. In Wikidata, references are used to point to specific sources that back up the data provided in a statement.

References, like statements, also consist of at least one property-value pair (for a reference, the value is the source). Typically the property used for sources is one of two options: stated in (P248) (referring to publications and media) and reference URL (P854) (used for websites and online databases).

This guideline explains when it is necessary to add a source to a statement in Wikidata. It also explains the steps to be followed in order to add a source.

语言独立原则[edit]

什么时候需要来源?[edit]

维基数据是有来源数据的聚集处,这意味着很多声明应该指明数据来自哪里。

在以下情况下,声明无须说明来源:

  1. 当数据值为常识,并不含任何争议。例如Earth (Q2)instance of (P31)terrestrial planet (Q128207)就是常识
  2. 当项中的属性直接指向外部来源(例如数据库或权威控制文档),并以此外部来源确认项中的其他资料时。例如Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Q43361)GND ID (P227)(德国国家图书馆GNL的权威文件)的声明不需要来源(值4615979-4已包含在GNL官网中)
  3. 当项本身为声明的来源。例如:The Hunger Games (Q11679)图书系列,可以说author (P50)就是Suzanne Collins (Q228624)而不需要包含来源The Hunger Games (Q11679)

更多信息参见无须来源的项

在一个例子中添加新的数据[edit]

带来源声明的例子

There are four basic steps to follow when adding a source regardless of the type of source being added.

  1. Check if an item for the source already exists in Wikidata using the Item by title search
  2. Add the source as an item if: i) it's not in Wikidata already and ii) it is not a webpage
  3. Add a reference to your statement and point to the source item. For source items in Wikidata use the property stated in (P248); for sources that exist online outside of Wikidata, use reference URL (P854)
  4. 添加来源及所有所需限定符

More information on searching for and creating items can be found at Help:Items.

不同形式的来源[edit]

References should point to reliable sources of information such as university-level textbooks or reference books, academic journals, and newspapers. For more information on identifying reliable sources, please see Wikidata:Verifiability.

Please note that while pages on Wikipedia (and other Wikimedia sites) should and can be added as sitelinks, they are not appropriate as sources for Wikidata statements. As per the Wikipedia policy on verifiability, the content of articles in Wikipedia must be verifiable; it should be supported by sources also (in the form of citations). However, just because something is stated on a Wikipedia page, does not mean that it is acceptable to consider the Wikipedia page itself as a source; it's much better to locate the actual citation and use that instead. For this reason, statements that are only supported by "imported from (P143)" are not considered sourced statements. If you encounter one of these statements, please remove "imported from" and add a more reliable source.

This list is not complete and types of sources in addition to the ones found on this page may be reliable; if you would like to add a new section with instructions on how to add such sources, please do so.

书籍[edit]

在维基数据中,书籍依据Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (Q16388)(FRBR)模型来对待,这是一个通用于图书馆科学的概念框架。

Without going into too much detail, the FRBR model allows us to make a distinction between creative works, and their different editions or translations; in Wikidata, these are known as work items and edition items respectively. For example, we can say that Hamlet (Q41567) and Bible (Q1845) are work items, while Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (Q14422206) and the King James Version (Q623398) are edition items.

When sourcing statements, you should only ever use the edition item of a book. In some cases, it will be necessary to first add the work item to Wikidata in order to create an edition item. You can do so by following the steps below:

  1. Check if the work item already exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 4. If the item is not found, create a new one for it and go to step 2.
  2. 至少将以下语句添加到作品项目中:
  3. Add any additional properties to the work item that may seem necessary, for example:
  4. Check if the edition item of your work item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 8. If the item is not found, create a new item for the edition and go to step 5. Make sure to label the edition item in a way that can be differentiated from the work item
  5. Label the new edition item in a way that can be differentiated from the work item by adding the edition number with the title
  6. Add at least the following statements to the edition item:
  7. Add any additional properties to the edition item that may seem necessary, for example:
  8. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the edition item
  9. Add any additional properties to the reference section which can help when verifying the value of the statement:

例如:

Work item: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Q904273), edition item: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd edition) (Q11927173)
Used to source statement: CAS Registry Number (P231) of ethanol (Q153)
Reference: stated in (P248)CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd edition) (Q11927173)

科学、报纸或杂志文章[edit]

Publication articles require that both the publication and the article be added as items to Wikidata (if they haven't already been).

  1. Check if the publication item already exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 3. If the item is not found, create a new one for it and go to step 2.
  2. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the publication item:
  3. Check if the article item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 5. If the item is not found, create a new item for the article and go to step 4.
  4. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the article item:
  5. 回到您加入参考资料的那个项,使用stated in (P248)添加来源至声明,并链接到条目项。
  6. If needed, return to the publication item and add additional properties:
  7. If needed, return to the article item and add additional properties:

例如:

Journal item: Geological Society Special Publication (Q15817216), article item: The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved (Q15545344)
Used to source statement: inception (P571) of the Earth (Q2)
Reference: stated in (P248)The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved (Q15545344)

报告、方针、法律和技术性文献[edit]

  1. Check if the document item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to the step 3. If the item is not found, create a new item for the edition and go to step 2.
  2. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the document item:
  3. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the document item.
  4. If needed, return to the document item and add additional properties:

例如:

Legislation item: Civil Marriage Act (Q3258612)
Used to source statement: start time (P580) of same-sex marriage in Canada (Q17447)
Reference: stated in (P248)Civil Marriage Act (Q3258612)

網頁[edit]

  1. Check if the web page item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the web page item. If an item is not found, do not create one for it; instead proceed to step #2
  2. Source your statement with reference URL (P854) and link it to the URL of the webpage
  3. Add the following qualifiers to your reference so the source can be tracked down if the URL changes:
  4. If needed, add additional qualifiers:
    • author (P50) and publisher (P123). Please note if the web page belongs to a major web site that already has an item in Wikidata, you should use publisher.
    • quote (P1683) → exact quotation of text from the webpage

例如:

Web page item: United States Population Clock (Q3398022)
Used to source statement: population (P1082) of United States of America (Q30)
Reference: stated in (P248)United States Population Clock (Q3398022)
Non-web page item
Used to source statement: date of birth (P569) of Giambattista Bodoni (Q220768)
Reference: reference URL (P854)http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/giambattista-bodoni_%28Dizionario-Biografico%29/

数据库[edit]

Please note: this approach only applies to databases that already have a corresponding property defined in Wikidata. The property is often an identifier unique to the database such as the PubMed ID (P698) for PubMed or the IMDb ID (P345) for the International Movie Database. Consult the list of properties for authority control IDs to determine whether the database property has been added to Wikidata. You can also use the advanced options of Special:Search to search for the database and/or its identifiers in the Property namespace. If no such property exists for the database, treat the database as a webpage (see above).

  1. Search for the database item in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to the next step. If the item is not found, create a new one for it.
  2. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the database item:
  3. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the database item.
  4. Add the following qualifiers to your reference in order to indicate the specific register of the database.
    • database property → database property ID (the unique identifier for the data as per the database)
    • title (P1476) → the title of the dataset in the database
    • publication date (P577) → the publication date for the data. If no publication date is provided use retrieved (P813), the date when the data was taken from the database

例如:

Database item: PubChem (Q278487), database property: PubChem CID (P662)
Used to source statement: InChI (P234) of ethanol (Q153)
Reference: stated in (P248)PubChem (Q278487)

媒体与娱乐平台(电视/广播/音乐/视频)[edit]

  1. Check if the media item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to the next step. If the item is not found, create a new one for it.
  2. Source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the media item
  3. If needed, return to the media item and add additional properties:

例如:

Documentary item: Man on Wire (Q1417721)
Used to source statement: occupation (P106) of Philippe Petit (Q705289)
Reference: stated in (P248)Man on Wire (Q1417721)

中文来源的指引[edit]

  1. Till July 2014 the more general term part of (P361) was in use.

參見[edit]

Wikidata property to indicate a source (Q18608359) 相关的帮助页面参见:

额外的信息和指引参见: