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Help:Źródła

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Sources and the translation is 29% complete.

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The majority of statements on Wikidata should be verifiable insofar as they are supported by referenceable sources of information such as a book, scientific publication, or newspaper article. In Wikidata, references are used to point to specific sources that back up the data provided in a statement.

References, like statements, also consist of at least one property-value pair (for a reference, the value is the source). Typically the property used for sources is one of two options: stated in (P248) (referring to publications and media) and reference URL (P854) (used for websites and online databases).

This guideline explains when it is necessary to add a source to a statement in Wikidata. It also explains the steps to be followed in order to add a source.

Zasady ogólne niezależne od języka[edit]

Kiedy wstawiać źródła do deklaracji[edit]

Wikidane stanowią zbiór uźrółowionych danych, co oznacza, że większość deklaracji powinna wskazywać skąd pochodzą danych.

W niektórych przypadkach źródła nie są wymagane:

  1. Gdy wartość jest powszechnie znana i nie jest to kwestionowane. Np. powszechnie wiadomo, że Earth (Q2) instance of (P31) terrestrial planet (Q128207).
  2. When the item has a statement that refers to an external source of information (such as a database or authority control file) which allows easy verification of the statement. For example, a statement about Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Q43361)'s GND ID (P227) (an authority file maintained by the German National Library) does not need a source (the value, 4615979-4, is a direct link to the appropriate page on the German National Library's website)
  3. Gdy element sam w sobie jest źródłem dla deklaracji, np. dla serii książek The Hunger Games (Q11679) wystarczy podać, że author (P50) to Suzanne Collins (Q228624) bez potrzeby umieszczania The Hunger Games (Q11679) jako odnośnika dla tej deklaracji.

Aby uzyskać więcej informacji, zobacz Help:Sources/Items not needing sources.

Wstawianie źródła do deklaracji[edit]

przykład uźródłowionej deklaracji

There are four basic steps to follow when adding a source regardless of the type of source being added.

  1. Check if an item for the source already exists in Wikidata using the Item by title search
  2. Add the source as an item if: i) it's not in Wikidata already and ii) it is not a webpage
  3. Add a reference to your statement and point to the source item. For source items in Wikidata use the property stated in (P248); for sources that exist online outside of Wikidata, use reference URL (P854)
  4. Dodaj źródło i wszystkie niezbędne kwalifikatory

Więcej informacji na temat wyszukiwania i tworzenia elementów można znaleźć w Help:Items.

Różne typy źródeł[edit]

References should point to reliable sources of information such as university-level textbooks or reference books, academic journals, and newspapers. For more information on identifying reliable sources, please see Wikidata:Verifiability.

Please note that while pages on Wikipedia (and other Wikimedia sites) should and can be added as sitelinks, they are not appropriate as sources for Wikidata statements. As per the Wikipedia policy on verifiability, the content of articles in Wikipedia must be verifiable; it should be supported by sources also (in the form of citations). However, just because something is stated on a Wikipedia page, does not mean that it is acceptable to consider the Wikipedia page itself as a source; it's much better to locate the actual citation and use that instead. For this reason, statements that are only supported by "imported from (P143)" are not considered sourced statements. If you encounter one of these statements, please remove "imported from" and add a more reliable source.

This list is not complete and types of sources in addition to the ones found on this page may be reliable; if you would like to add a new section with instructions on how to add such sources, please do so.

Książki[edit]

In Wikidata, books are treated according to the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (Q16388) (FRBR) model, a commonly used conceptual framework in library science.

Without going into too much detail, the FRBR model allows us to make a distinction between creative works, and their different editions or translations; in Wikidata, these are known as work items and edition items respectively. For example, we can say that Hamlet (Q41567) and Bible (Q1845) are work items, while Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (Q14422206) and the King James Version (Q623398) are edition items.

When sourcing statements, you should only ever use the edition item of a book. In some cases, it will be necessary to first add the work item to Wikidata in order to create an edition item. You can do so by following the steps below:

  1. Check if the work item already exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 4. If the item is not found, create a new one for it and go to step 2.
  2. Add at least the following statements to the work item:
  3. Add any additional properties to the work item that may seem necessary, for example:
  4. Check if the edition item of your work item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 8. If the item is not found, create a new item for the edition and go to step 5. Make sure to label the edition item in a way that can be differentiated from the work item
  5. Label the new edition item in a way that can be differentiated from the work item by adding the edition number with the title
  6. Add at least the following statements to the edition item:
  7. Add any additional properties to the edition item that may seem necessary, for example:
  8. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the edition item
  9. Add any additional properties to the reference section which can help when verifying the value of the statement:

Przykład:

Work item: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Q904273), edition item: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd edition) (Q11927173)
Used to source statement: CAS Registry Number (P231) of ethanol (Q153)
Reference: stated in (P248)CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd edition) (Q11927173)

Artykuł naukowy, z gazety lub czasopisma[edit]

Publication articles require that both the publication and the article be added as items to Wikidata (if they haven't already been).

Sprawdź, czy publikowany element istnieje już w Wikidanych. Jeśli dany element istnieje, przejdź do punktu 3. W przypadku gdy nie istnieje, stwórz nowy dla niego i przejdź do punktu 2.

  1. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the publication item:
  2. Check if the article item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 5. If the item is not found, create a new item for the article and go to step 4.
  3. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the article item:
  4. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the article item.
  5. If needed, return to the publication item and add additional properties:
  6. If needed, return to the article item and add additional properties:

Przykład:

Journal item: Geological Society Special Publication (Q15817216), article item: The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved (Q15545344)
Used to source statement: inception (P571) of the Earth (Q2)
Reference: stated in (P248)The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved (Q15545344)

Raport, dokumentacja techniczna[edit]

  1. Sprawdź czy artykuł istnieje w Wikidanych. Jeśli nie, to utwórz element używając:
  2. Wstaw źródło do deklaracji używając stated in (P248), wskazujące na element artykułu.
  3. W razie potrzeby uzupełnij o page(s) (P304), no label (P387), volume (P478) lub chapter (P792).
  1. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the document item:
  2. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the document item.
  3. If needed, return to the document item and add additional properties:

Przykład:

Legislation item: Civil Marriage Act (Q3258612)
Used to source statement: start time (P580) of same-sex marriage in Canada (Q17447)
Reference: stated in (P248)Civil Marriage Act (Q3258612)

Strona internetowa[edit]

  1. NIE TWÓRZ elementu dla strony internetowej. Dodaj parametry strony w źródłowej sekcji deklaracji.
  2. Zasada: Dodaj źródło do deklaracji stosując reference URL (P854), dodaj original language of work (P364) i no label (P357) (tytuł oryginalny w języku oryginalnym)[1].
    • Zwykle wymagane: dodaj author (P50), i jeśli to konieczne, no label (P387), aby ułatwić odnalezienie artykuł w przypadku zmiany adresu URL.
  3. Znajdź dzień publikacji internetowej i dodać tę informację za pomocą publication date (P577). Jeśli nie ma informacji o dacie publikacji, należy wykorzystać retrieved (P813), aby wskazać, kiedy dane zostały pobrane ze strony internetowej.
  4. Jeśli strona internetowa należy do dużego serwisu internetowego, który ma swój element, należy użyć publisher (P123).
  1. Source your statement with reference URL (P854) and link it to the URL of the webpage
  2. Add the following qualifiers to your reference so the source can be tracked down if the URL changes:
  3. If needed, add additional qualifiers:
    • author (P50) and publisher (P123). Please note if the web page belongs to a major web site that already has an item in Wikidata, you should use publisher.
    • quote (P1683) → exact quotation of text from the webpage

Przykłady:

Web page item: United States Population Clock (Q3398022)
Used to source statement: population (P1082) of United States of America (Q30)
Reference: stated in (P248)United States Population Clock (Q3398022)
Non-web page item
Used to source statement: date of birth (P569) of Giambattista Bodoni (Q220768)
Reference: reference URL (P854)http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/giambattista-bodoni_%28Dizionario-Biografico%29/

Baza danych[edit]

Please note: this approach only applies to databases that already have a corresponding property defined in Wikidata. The property is often an identifier unique to the database such as the PubMed ID (P698) for PubMed or the IMDb ID (P345) for the International Movie Database. Consult the list of properties for authority control IDs to determine whether the database property has been added to Wikidata. You can also use the advanced options of Special:Search to search for the database and/or its identifiers in the Property namespace. If no such property exists for the database, treat the database as a webpage (see above).

  • Jeśli baza danych posiada swój identyfikator określony za pomocą właściwości
  1. Dodaj źródło do deklaracji za pomocą stated in (P248) wskazując na element bazy danych.
  2. Dodaj właściwość będącą identyfikatorem bazy danych, aby odnieść się do określonego rejestru bazy danych.
  3. Dodaj informację o dacie wersji bazy danych za pomocą publication date (P577). Jeśli nie ma informacji o dacie publikacji, użyj retrieved (P813), aby wskazać na datę pobrania informacji z bazy.
  1. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the database item:
  2. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the database item.
  3. Add the following qualifiers to your reference in order to indicate the specific register of the database.
    • database property → database property ID (the unique identifier for the data as per the database)
    • title (P1476) → the title of the dataset in the database
    • publication date (P577) → the publication date for the data. If no publication date is provided use retrieved (P813), the date when the data was taken from the database

Przykład:

Database item: PubChem (Q278487), database property: PubChem CID (P662)
Used to source statement: InChI (P234) of ethanol (Q153)
Reference: stated in (P248)PubChem (Q278487)

Media i rozrywka (TV/radio/muzyka/wideo)[edit]

  1. W stosownych przypadkach utwórz element do programu i serialu, w którym pojawia się dana informacja
  2. Dodaj źródło do deklaracji za pomocą stated in (P248)
  3. W razie potrzeby uzupełnij o publication date (P577), author (P50), series (P179), odcinek (do utworzenia), no label (P387).
  1. Source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the media item
  2. If needed, return to the media item and add additional properties:

Przykład:

Documentary item: Man on Wire (Q1417721)
Used to source statement: occupation (P106) of Philippe Petit (Q705289)
Reference: stated in (P248)Man on Wire (Q1417721)

Uwagi[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Till July 2014 the more general term part of (P361) was in use.

Zobacz też[edit]

Wikidata property to indicate a source (Q18608359)For related Help pages, see:

Aby uzyskać dodatkowe informacje i wskazówki, zobacz:

  • Project chat, for discussing all and any aspects of Wikidata
  • Wikidata:Glossary, the glossary of terms used in this and other Help pages
  • Help:FAQ, frequently asked questions asked and answered by the Wikidata community
  • Help:Contents, the Help portal featuring all the documentation available for Wikidata