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Help:출처

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Sources and the translation is 13% complete.

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위키데이터에 있는 대부분의 서술들은 신문 기사나 논문, 책 등 검증 가능한 매체를 통해 그 사실을 확인할 수 있어야 합니다. 따라서 위키데이터에서의 출처는 서술의 값이 어디에서 왔는 지를 기록해 둔 정보원을 나타내기 위해 사용됩니다.

References, like statements, also consist of at least one property-value pair (for a reference, the value is the source). Typically the property used for sources is one of two options: stated in (P248) (referring to publications and media) and reference URL (P854) (used for websites and online databases).

This guideline explains when it is necessary to add a source to a statement in Wikidata. It also explains the steps to be followed in order to add a source.

언어와 무관하게 적용되는 일반적 원칙[edit]

서술에 출처를 달아야 하는 경우들[edit]

위키데이터는 어딘가에서 가져온 데이터들의 모음집입니다. 이는 대부분의 서술들에 어디서 이 값을 가져왔는지 나타내야 한다는 뜻이기도 합니다.

다만 아래에 해당되는 경우엔 출처를 적을 필요가 없습니다.

  1. 서술의 값이 모두에게 상식으로 인정되고 있으며, 지금까지 이 값을 둘러싼 어떤 분쟁도 없었던 경우. Earth (Q2)terrestrial planet (Q128207) 중 하나로 볼 수 있는 게 상식인 것이 여기에 해당하는 좋은 예입니다.
  2. 쉽게 검증할 수 있는 외부 출처(데이터베이스나 전거통제 파일)를 참조한 경우. 예로 들어, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Q43361)에 달린 GND ID (P227) 속성의 값에는 독일 국립도서관 웹사이트의 해당 문서로 바로 갈 수 있는 링크가 자동으로 붙으므로 별도의 출처를 적을 필요가 없습니다.
  3. 어떤 항목의 서술 출처가 바로 항목 자기자신인 경우. 예로 들어, The Hunger Games (Q11679)author (P50) 속성 값으로 Suzanne Collins (Q228624)를 서술할 때 출처에 자기자신인 The Hunger Games (Q11679)를 다시 적을 필요가 없습니다.

출처를 달지 않아도 되는 조건에 대해 더 자세히 알고 싶으시면 Help:Sources/Items not needing sources를 참고하세요.

서술에 출처 추가하기[edit]

example of a sourced statement

There are four basic steps to follow when adding a source regardless of the type of source being added.

  1. Check if an item for the source already exists in Wikidata using the Item by title search
  2. Add the source as an item if: i) it's not in Wikidata already and ii) it is not a webpage
  3. Add a reference to your statement and point to the source item. For source items in Wikidata use the property stated in (P248); for sources that exist online outside of Wikidata, use reference URL (P854)
  4. Add the source and all necessary qualifiers

More information on searching for and creating items can be found at Help:Items.

서술에 출처를 밝히는 다양한 방법[edit]

References should point to reliable sources of information such as university-level textbooks or reference books, academic journals, and newspapers. For more information on identifying reliable sources, please see Wikidata:Verifiability.

Please note that while pages on Wikipedia (and other Wikimedia sites) should and can be added as sitelinks, they are not appropriate as sources for Wikidata statements. As per the Wikipedia policy on verifiability, the content of articles in Wikipedia must be verifiable; it should be supported by sources also (in the form of citations). However, just because something is stated on a Wikipedia page, does not mean that it is acceptable to consider the Wikipedia page itself as a source; it's much better to locate the actual citation and use that instead. For this reason, statements that are only supported by "imported from (P143)" are not considered sourced statements. If you encounter one of these statements, please remove "imported from" and add a more reliable source.

This list is not complete and types of sources in addition to the ones found on this page may be reliable; if you would like to add a new section with instructions on how to add such sources, please do so.

Books[edit]

In Wikidata, books are treated according to the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (Q16388) (FRBR) model, a commonly used conceptual framework in library science.

Without going into too much detail, the FRBR model allows us to make a distinction between creative works, and their different editions or translations; in Wikidata, these are known as work items and edition items respectively. For example, we can say that Hamlet (Q41567) and Bible (Q1845) are work items, while Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (Q14422206) and the King James Version (Q623398) are edition items.

When sourcing statements, you should only ever use the edition item of a book. In some cases, it will be necessary to first add the work item to Wikidata in order to create an edition item. You can do so by following the steps below:

  1. Check if the work item already exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 4. If the item is not found, create a new one for it and go to step 2.
  2. Add at least the following statements to the work item:
  3. Add any additional properties to the work item that may seem necessary, for example:
  4. Check if the edition item of your work item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 8. If the item is not found, create a new item for the edition and go to step 5. Make sure to label the edition item in a way that can be differentiated from the work item
  5. Label the new edition item in a way that can be differentiated from the work item by adding the edition number with the title
  6. Add at least the following statements to the edition item:
  7. Add any additional properties to the edition item that may seem necessary, for example:
  8. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the edition item
  9. Add any additional properties to the reference section which can help when verifying the value of the statement:

Example:

Work item: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Q904273), edition item: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd edition) (Q11927173)
Used to source statement: CAS Registry Number (P231) of ethanol (Q153)
Reference: stated in (P248)CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd edition) (Q11927173)

Scientific, newspaper or magazine article[edit]

Publication articles require that both the publication and the article be added as items to Wikidata (if they haven't already been).

  1. Check if the publication item already exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 3. If the item is not found, create a new one for it and go to step 2.
  2. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the publication item:
  3. Check if the article item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to step 5. If the item is not found, create a new item for the article and go to step 4.
  4. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the article item:
  5. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the article item.
  6. If needed, return to the publication item and add additional properties:
  7. If needed, return to the article item and add additional properties:

Example:

Journal item: Geological Society Special Publication (Q15817216), article item: The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved (Q15545344)
Used to source statement: inception (P571) of the Earth (Q2)
Reference: stated in (P248)The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved (Q15545344)

Reports, policy, legislation and technical documentation[edit]

  1. Check if the document item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to the step 3. If the item is not found, create a new item for the edition and go to step 2.
  2. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the document item:
  3. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the document item.
  4. If needed, return to the document item and add additional properties:

Example:

Legislation item: Civil Marriage Act (Q3258612)
Used to source statement: start time (P580) of same-sex marriage in Canada (Q17447)
Reference: stated in (P248)Civil Marriage Act (Q3258612)

Web page[edit]

  1. Check if the web page item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the web page item. If an item is not found, do not create one for it; instead proceed to step #2
  2. Source your statement with reference URL (P854) and link it to the URL of the webpage
  3. Add the following qualifiers to your reference so the source can be tracked down if the URL changes:
  4. If needed, add additional qualifiers:
    • author (P50) and publisher (P123). Please note if the web page belongs to a major web site that already has an item in Wikidata, you should use publisher.
    • quote (P1683) → exact quotation of text from the webpage

Examples:

Web page item: United States Population Clock (Q3398022)
Used to source statement: population (P1082) of United States of America (Q30)
Reference: stated in (P248)United States Population Clock (Q3398022)
Non-web page item
Used to source statement: date of birth (P569) of Giambattista Bodoni (Q220768)
Reference: reference URL (P854)http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/giambattista-bodoni_%28Dizionario-Biografico%29/

Databases[edit]

Please note: this approach only applies to databases that already have a corresponding property defined in Wikidata. The property is often an identifier unique to the database such as the PubMed ID (P698) for PubMed or the IMDb ID (P345) for the International Movie Database. Consult the list of properties for authority control IDs to determine whether the database property has been added to Wikidata. You can also use the advanced options of Special:Search to search for the database and/or its identifiers in the Property namespace. If no such property exists for the database, treat the database as a webpage (see above).

  1. Search for the database item in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to the next step. If the item is not found, create a new one for it.
  2. Ensure that at least the following statement is added to the database item:
  3. Return to the item page you were adding a reference to source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the database item.
  4. Add the following qualifiers to your reference in order to indicate the specific register of the database.
    • database property → database property ID (the unique identifier for the data as per the database)
    • title (P1476) → the title of the dataset in the database
    • publication date (P577) → the publication date for the data. If no publication date is provided use retrieved (P813), the date when the data was taken from the database

Example:

Database item: PubChem (Q278487), database property: PubChem CID (P662)
Used to source statement: InChI (P234) of ethanol (Q153)
Reference: stated in (P248)PubChem (Q278487)

Media & Entertainment (TV/radio/music/video)[edit]

  1. Check if the media item exists in Wikidata. If an item is found, proceed to the next step. If the item is not found, create a new one for it.
  2. Source your statement with stated in (P248) and link it to the media item
  3. If needed, return to the media item and add additional properties:

Example:

Documentary item: Man on Wire (Q1417721)
Used to source statement: occupation (P106) of Philippe Petit (Q705289)
Reference: stated in (P248)Man on Wire (Q1417721)

Guidelines for sources in English[edit]

  1. Till July 2014 the more general term part of (P361) was in use.

See also[edit]

Wikidata property to indicate a source (Q18608359)For related Help pages, see:

For additional information and guidance see:

  • Project chat, for discussing all and any aspects of Wikidata
  • Wikidata:Glossary, the glossary of terms used in this and other Help pages
  • Help:FAQ, frequently asked questions asked and answered by the Wikidata community
  • Help:Contents, the Help portal featuring all the documentation available for Wikidata