In Wikidata, items are used to represent all the things in human knowledge, including topics, concepts, and objects. For example, the "1988 Summer Olympics", "love", "Elvis Presley", and "gorilla" are all items in Wikidata.
For those who are familiar with Wikipedia, it may be tempting to initially think of items as like the Wikidata version of Wikipedia articles. While items and articles are both pages for storing information about different concepts or topics of human knowledge, it's important to keep in mind that Wikidata is not just a database of Wikipedia content. In fact, Wikidata is actually more similar to Wikimedia Commons, the media file repository, than it is to Wikipedia—but instead of media files, Wikidata provides centralized storage for an access to structured data for all Wikimedia projects, as well as for use on external websites.
There are a few important characteristics about items that contribute to the success of Wikidata:
Wikidata items are said to be notable. This means at least one of three things (1) corresponding page on a Wikimedia site such as Wikipedia, Wikivoyage, Wikisource, Wikiquote, Wikiversity, or Wikimedia Commons, (2) a clearly identifiable conceptual or material entity that can be described using serious and publicly available references or (3) the item fulfills a structural need. For more information look at our notability policy.
Items are also unique. Each item should represent a clearly identifiable concept or object, or an instance of a clearly identifiable concept or object. For example, in Wikidata we can have items for both the concept of planet (Q634) and an instance of a planet, Earth (Q2).
Items can and should also be linked to each other. Each item has a unique identifier (starting with a Q prefix) and its own page in the Wikidata main namespace. For example, for the items listed above, 1988 Summer Olympics (Q8470), love (Q316), Elvis Presley (Q303) and gorilla (Q36611) are the respective item pages. These pages are where all the data for each item is added, edited, and maintained, mostly in the form of statements.
Pages also allow items to be linked together so that all the data on Wikidata can be interconnected. A link to another page is usually added as a "property" by clicking on "edit" in the "statements" section. If no appropriate property is listed yet, it can be added by clicking on "+ add" on the bottom of the "statements" section. See: #Adding to an existing item page.
Typical properties to link one item to another:
- Comparing items ...
- Item is part of ...
- part of (P361) - (section of .../ contained within .../ pieces of ...)
- instance of (P31) - (is an example of ...)
- subclass of (P279) - (is a subset of ...)
- facet of (P1269) - (aspect of .../ subitem of .../ a broader perspective on the same topic is offered by ...)
- has quality (P1552) - (has characteristic .../ defining feature .../ inherent property ...)
- Item contains ...
- Albert Einstein's brain (Q2464312) is part of (P361): Albert Einstein (Q937).
- Albert Einstein (Q937) is an instance of (P31): human (Q5).
- human (Q5) is a subclass of (P279): mammal (Q7377).
- mammal (Q7377) has part (P527): mammary gland (Q189961).
Outside of item pages links to items can usually be placed by adding the prefix "Q|" to the item number and enclosing it in curly brackets, e.g.:
Creating a new item
Step-by-step guides to the basics of editing Wikidata items: Wikidata:Tours
新建新数据项之前要检查是否已建立。你可以通过左侧栏正数第 5 个（默认情况）的“按标题搜索项”检查。此搜索页有两个输入框。请在有网站左侧输入维基百科条目位于语言的维基，会呈现下拉框来选择语言；而在“页面”的右侧输入条目题目。如果已存在，则会跳转至该页面。
The item by title search page has two entry fields that are designed for searching for items that already have a page on a Wikimedia site and may be in the Wikidata system. The left field, which says "Site:" is where you put the language of the Wikimedia site page that corresponds to the item you want to add. Most Wikimedia sites have equivalent editions for different languages which are represented by a code. For example, the code for English language is en and the code for French language is fr. This code can be found in the URL; so en.wiktionary.org is the English Wiktionary and en.wikipedia.org is the English Wikipedia, while fr.wiktionary.org is the French Wiktionary and fr.wikipedia.org is the French Wikipedia. A screenshot that shows where to locate a language code for a Wikimedia site is available here.
For the second field, "Page:", you must put in the exact title of the page as it appears at the top of the page on its Wikimedia site. This is important for retrieving the right item because there may be multiple items with the same label in Wikidata. For example, if you wanted to know if there was already an item page for capital (the concept referring to non-financial assets) in Wikidata, you must search "capital (economics)"—the title of the page on Wikipedia—and not "capital" which would instead give you the item page for the Wikipedia disambiguation page on capital.
When Wikidata already has a page on that item, the search will take you to that page.
如果没有，你尽可建立。你能通过搜索和点击左侧正数第四个（默认情况）“创建新项”来建立。点击任意连接后跳转页面都会要求输入标签和形容。如果你使用搜索，同样。完成表单后点击“完成”（从第 3 页“如何编辑维基数据”中得到更多信息）。
Adding to an existing item page
A label is the most common name that an item would be known by. Labels are added to the text fields at the top of an item page to the "Label" column. Click "edit", type in the label, and click "save". A description is a short phrase designed to disambiguate the page in question from other pages with the same or similar labels. Descriptions are added in the same way as labels, to the "Description" column. See Help:Label and Help:Description for more on using labels and descriptions.
在以“同样也称为：”开始的行点击 [增加] 按钮。此行将高光淡蓝色并显示一个文本框。在里面可以输入别名，而第二个也会出现。当完成填写后，点击“[保存]”。
Please note: When clicking on any "edit" or "+ add" before the page has fully loaded you might be taken to a separate page with a special interface. This will also let you make the intended changes but it is more difficult to use. If the page does not appear as depicted on the images to the right after clicking "edit" or "+ add" you might want go back, wait for the browser to finish loading the page (usually there is an indication on top of the browser's tab) and then click "edit" or "+ add" again.
Examples of four fields filled out for the item Marie Curie (Q7186)
|Language||Item||Label||Description||Aliases||Link to Wikipedia Page|
|英语 (en)||Q7186||Marie Curie||French-Polish physicist and chemist||Maria Salomea Skłodowska; Marie Skłodowska-Curie||Marie Curie|
|法语 (fr)||Q7186||Marie Curie||physicienne et chimiste française d'origine polonaise||Maria Salomea Skłodowska herb Dołęga; Maria Skłodowska-Curie; Marie Sklodowska-Curie; Maria Skłodowska||Marie Curie|
|波兰语 (pl)||Q7186||Maria Skłodowska-Curie||polsko-francuska uczona, fizyk, noblistka||Maria Curie-Skłodowska; Marie Curie; Maria Skłodowska||Maria Skłodowska-Curie|
Editing an item page
For additional information and guidance, see:
- Project chat, for discussing all and any aspects of Wikidata
- Wikidata:Glossary, the glossary of terms used in this and other Help pages
- Help:FAQ, frequently asked questions asked and answered by the Wikidata community
- Help:Contents, the Help portal featuring all the documentation available for Wikidata