Help:項

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Items and the translation is 58% complete.

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維基數據歡迎您!很高興你想要了解如何編輯維基數據。與維基百科相同,維基數據同樣架構於MediaWiki 軟體,因此任何頁面皆可被加入、更改或刪除,你就可以。但與維基百科不同的是我們亦使用Wikibase 軟體使我們能夠有效存檔結構化數據。如果你有任何建設性的想法,請直接編輯。

了解项[edit]

项和其数据相互关联

在维基数据中,项被用来代表人类知识中,包括主题、概念和对象的所有“东西”。例如,“1988年夏季奥林匹克运动会”、“爱”、“猫王”和“大猩猩”都是维基数据的项。

熟悉维基百科的人,起初可能会把“项”当作百科文章的维基数据版。“项”和“文章”都是存贮人类知识中概念和话题的页面,但应随时铭记,维基数据不仅仅是一个维基百科内容的数据库。实际上,比起维基百科,维基数据更像是Wikimedia Commons,一个维基多媒体文件的资源库,但这一次并不是多媒体文件,维基数据为所有的维基媒体项目的结构化数据接入调用提供集中存储,同时也服务于外部网站的调用。

维基数据中合格的“项”有几个重要的特征:

留意[edit]

维基数据的项应是“显著的”。也就是要至少符合以下三个条件中的一条:1)与Wikimedia site中某个页面中的内容相一致,如维基百科,Wikivoyage,Wikisource,Wikiquote,维基大学,或Wikimedia Commons;2)是一个可清晰界定的概念或客观实体,能够用严格且公开可用的资料来进行解释;3)项符合结构化的需要。更多信息参见:显著性策略

独特性[edit]

Items are also unique. Each item should represent a clearly identifiable concept or object, or an instance of a clearly identifiable concept or object. For example, in Wikidata we can have items for both the concept of planet (Q634) and an instance of a planet, Earth Kamila (kamilus, tierritus) (Q2).

连接[edit]

Items can and should also be linked to each other. Each item has a unique identifier (starting with a Q prefix) and its own page in the Wikidata main namespace. For example, for the items listed above, 1988 Summer Olympics (Q8470), love (Q316), Elvis Presley (Q303) and gorilla (Q36611) are the respective item pages. These pages are where all the data for each item is added, edited, and maintained, mostly in the form of statements.

Pages also allow items to be linked together so that all the data on Wikidata can be interconnected. A link to another page is usually added as a "property" by clicking on "edit" in the "statements" section. If no appropriate property is listed yet, it can be added by clicking on "+ add" on the bottom of the "statements" section. See: #Adding to an existing item page.

Typical properties to link one item to another:

Example:

  1. Albert Einstein's brain (Q2464312) is part of (P361): Albert Einstein (Q937).
  2. Albert Einstein (Q937) is an instance of (P31): human (Q5).
  3. human (Q5) is a subclass of (P279): mammal (Q7377).
  4. mammal (Q7377) has part (P527): mammary gland (Q189961).


Outside of item pages links to items can usually be placed by adding the prefix "Q|" to the item number and enclosing it in curly brackets, e.g.: {{Q|8470}}.

创建新项[edit]

维基数据截图——高亮的标签字段
维基数据截图——高亮的标签字段
维基数据截图——高亮的说明字段
维基数据截图——加入站点连接

Step-by-step guides to the basics of editing Wikidata items: Wikidata:Tours

在您为一个“项”创建页面前,最好确认一下维基数据中是否存在你想创建的“项”对应的页面,最好的方式是使用按标题搜索项进行搜索,搜索链接在屏幕左上角,它默认是最上边第五个名叫"Item by title"的链接。

搜索页包含两个输入字段。左边叫"Site:"是供您输入语言。输入的时候会有自动提示帮助您选择想搜索的语言。第二个字段 "Page:",您必须精确输入维基百科页面头部的大字标题部分,如果维基百科有相关词条的页面,搜索就会找到对应页面

For the second field, "Page:", you must put in the exact title of the page as it appears at the top of the page on its Wikimedia site. This is important for retrieving the right item because there may be multiple items with the same label in Wikidata. For example, if you wanted to know if there was already an item page for capital (the concept referring to non-financial assets) in Wikidata, you must search "capital (economics)"—the title of the page on Wikipedia—and not "capital" which would instead give you the item page for the Wikipedia disambiguation page on capital.

When Wikidata already has a page on that item, the search will take you to that page.

如果一个数据项缺失,你可以创建它。你可以点击按标题搜索项或使用在屏幕左边的Create a new item"页面来完成操作。默认情况中,链接在正数第四条。从任一链接,你会进入一个页面然后会问你是否为labeldescription创建新的入口。如果你使用按标题搜索项,界面会有两个让你在搜索时输入关键词的输入框。如果你使用创建一个新数据项,不用担心没有这些。填写所有文本框,当你完成后点击“Create”。

添加到既有项页面[edit]

labeldescription旁边,还有两个需要被填充的元素是aliasesinterwiki links

A label is the most common name that an item would be known by. Labels are added to the text fields at the top of an item page to the "Label" column. Click "edit", type in the label, and click "save". A description is a short phrase designed to disambiguate the page in question from other pages with the same or similar labels. Descriptions are added in the same way as labels, to the "Description" column. See Help:Label and Help:Description for more on using labels and descriptions.

You can add aliases by clicking the "edit" button at the top of an item page to the "Also known as" column. You will be able to insert the first alias into the field, at which point a second field will appear. Keep filling in aliases until you have no more alternate names to add, then click "save". See Help:Aliases for more on using information.

To add a sitelink to Wikidata, go to the section(s) below the appropriate heading(s), for example "Wikipedia" or "Wikiquote" and click the "edit" next to the heading. At the bottom of the sitelink group you will then be given two blank fields: a left field which says "wiki" and (shown after correct filling a first field) a right field which says "page". The left field is where you put the language of the Wikimedia site page that the item corresponds to. The right field is where you put the title of the page as it appears on the Wikimedia site. Both of these fields contain drop downs that will help you fill in the information once you begin typing. When you have filled out both fields, click "save". See Help:Sitelinks for more information.

Please note: When clicking on any "edit" or "+ add" before the page has fully loaded you might be taken to a separate page with a special interface. This will also let you make the intended changes but it is more difficult to use. If the page does not appear as depicted on the images to the right after clicking "edit" or "+ add" you might want go back, wait for the browser to finish loading the page (usually there is an indication on top of the browser's tab) and then click "edit" or "+ add" again.

Examples of four fields filled out for the item Marie Curie (Q7186)

Language Item Label Description Aliases 链接至维基百科页面
英语 (en) Q7186 Marie Curie French-Polish physicist and chemist Maria Salomea Skłodowska; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Marie Curie
法语 (fr) Q7186 Marie Curie physicienne et chimiste française d'origine polonaise Maria Salomea Skłodowska herb Dołęga; Maria Skłodowska-Curie; Marie Sklodowska-Curie; Maria Skłodowska Marie Curie
波兰文 (pl) Q7186 Maria Skłodowska-Curie polsko-francuska uczona, fizyk, noblistka Maria Curie-Skłodowska; Marie Curie; Maria Skłodowska Maria Skłodowska-Curie

编辑项页面[edit]

How an item page is build up

All four fields, the label, description, aliases, and sitelinks, are editable. To edit an existing element, click on the "edit" button and then enter the new or updated information. Then click "save". If an alias or sitelink is incorrect, you can remove it. To do this, first click on the "edit" button and then either delete the alias you wish to remove, or click the bin icon for the sitelink you wish to remove. Then click "save". The element will immediately disappear and be removed from the database.

删除项[edit]

只有管理员可以删除项。删除通过Wikidata:Requests for deletions完成。请提供一个简短的原因。

参见[edit]

相关的帮助页面请参见:

  • Help:标签,解释了什么是标签以及它们遵循那些的规则。
  • Help:描述,解释了什么是描述以及它们遵循那些的规则。
  • Help:别名,解释了什么是别名以及相关方针
  • Help:声明,解释了什么是报表以及他们遵循哪些规则。
  • Help:網站鏈接,解释了什么是网站链接以及它们遵循哪些规则。

额外的信息和指引参见: