Help:Menyunting

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Selamat datang ke Wikidata! Kami berbesar hati kerana anda datang ke sini dengan rasa teringin sekali untuk belajar menyunting secara lebih lanjut. Seperti yang anda sudah semestinya telah baca, Wikidata merupakan pangkalan pengetahuan bebas yang boleh disunting oleh sesiapa juga. Jika anda ada cadangan yang membina, jangan malu-malu. Klik panduan di sebelah kanan atau baca di bawah untuk bermula!

Understanding items[edit]

Items and their data are interconnected

In Wikidata, items are used to represent all the things in human knowledge, including topics, concepts, and objects. For example, the "1988 Summer Olympics", "love", "Elvis Presley", and "gorilla" are all items in Wikidata.

For those who are familiar with Wikipedia, it may be tempting to initially think of items as like the Wikidata version of Wikipedia articles. While items and articles are both pages for storing information about different concepts or topics of human knowledge, it's important to keep in mind that Wikidata is not just a database of Wikipedia content. In fact, Wikidata is actually more similar to Wikimedia Commons, the media file repository, than it is to Wikipedia—but instead of media files, Wikidata provides centralized storage for an access to structured data for all Wikimedia projects, as well as for use on external websites.

There are a few important characteristics about items that contribute to the success of Wikidata:

Notable items[edit]

Wikidata items are said to be notable. This means at least one of three things (1) corresponding page on a Wikimedia site such as Wikipedia, Wikivoyage, Wikisource, Wikiquote, Wikiversity, or Wikimedia Commons, (2) a clearly identifiable conceptual or material entity that can be described using serious and publicly available references or (3) the item fulfills a structural need. For more information look at our notability policy.

Unique items[edit]

Items are also unique. Each item should represent a clearly identifiable concept or object, or an instance of a clearly identifiable concept or object. For example, in Wikidata we can have items for both the concept of planet (Q634) and an instance of a planet, Earth Kamila (kamilus, tierritus) (Q2).

Linking items[edit]

Items can and should also be linked to each other. Each item has a unique identifier (starting with a Q prefix) and its own page in the Wikidata main namespace. For example, for the items listed above, 1988 Summer Olympics (Q8470), love (Q316), Elvis Presley (Q303) and gorilla (Q36611) are the respective item pages. These pages are where all the data for each item is added, edited, and maintained, mostly in the form of statements.

Pages also allow items to be linked together so that all the data on Wikidata can be interconnected. A link to another page is usually added as a "property" by clicking on "edit" in the "statements" section. If no appropriate property is listed yet, it can be added by clicking on "+ add" on the bottom of the "statements" section. See: #Adding to an existing item page.

Typical properties to link one item to another:

Example:

  1. Albert Einstein's brain (Q2464312) is part of (P361): Albert Einstein (Q937).
  2. Albert Einstein (Q937) is an instance of (P31): human (Q5).
  3. human (Q5) is a subclass of (P279): mammal (Q7377).
  4. mammal (Q7377) has part (P527): mammary gland (Q189961).


Outside of item pages links to items can usually be placed by adding the prefix "Q|" to the item number and enclosing it in curly brackets, e.g.: {{Q|8470}}.

Creating a new item[edit]

Create a new item by choosing "Create a new item" in the menu to the left
Enter the label and description of the new item
Edit the item "Marie Curie"
Add a sitelink

Step-by-step guides to the basics of editing Wikidata items: Wikidata:Tours

Sebelum anda membuat halaman untuk sebuah item, ada baiknya jika anda pastikan yang Wikidata tidak mempunyai laman bagi item tersebut. Cara terbaik untuk melihat sama ada Wikidata sudahpun mempunyai laman buat item yang ingin anda tambah ialah dengan mengguna gelintaran item mengikut tajuk. Sebuah pautan untuk penggelintaran ini terletak pada bar di sebelah kiri skrin. Secara lalai, ia adalah pautan kelima dari atas, dan diberi tajuk "Item by title". Laman item-mengikut-tajuk mempunyai dua medan entri. Medan kiri, yang berbunyi "Site:" merupakan tempat anda meletakkan bahasa di mana terdapatnya rencana Wikipedia. Apabila anda mula menaip, medan ini akan menampilkan menu runtuh untuk membantu anda memilih bahasa yang anda mahu. Bagi medan yang kedua pula, "Page:", anda perlu memasukkan tajuk tepat laman sebagai mana ia kelihata dalam teks besar pada bahagian atas laman Wikipedia. Jika Wikidata mempunyai laman berkaitan item itu, penggelintaran akan membawa anda ke laman tersebut.

The item by title search page has two entry fields that are designed for searching for items that already have a page on a Wikimedia site and may be in the Wikidata system. The left field, which says "Site:" is where you put the language of the Wikimedia site page that corresponds to the item you want to add. Most Wikimedia sites have equivalent editions for different languages which are represented by a code. For example, the code for English language is en and the code for French language is fr. This code can be found in the URL; so en.wiktionary.org is the English Wiktionary and en.wikipedia.org is the English Wikipedia, while fr.wiktionary.org is the French Wiktionary and fr.wikipedia.org is the French Wikipedia. A screenshot that shows where to locate a language code for a Wikimedia site is available here.

For the second field, "Page:", you must put in the exact title of the page as it appears at the top of the page on its Wikimedia site. This is important for retrieving the right item because there may be multiple items with the same label in Wikidata. For example, if you wanted to know if there was already an item page for capital (the concept referring to non-financial assets) in Wikidata, you must search "capital (economics)"—the title of the page on Wikipedia—and not "capital" which would instead give you the item page for the Wikipedia disambiguation page on capital.

When Wikidata already has a page on that item, the search will take you to that page.

Sekiranya sesuatu item itu tiada, anda boleh mewujudkannya sendiri. Anda boleh melakukan ini dengan memetik butang pada bahagian bawah gelintaran item mengikut tajuk atau dengan memetik "Create a new item" pada bar di sebelah kiri. Secara lalai, pautan ialah yang keempat dari atas. Dari mana-mana pautan, anda akan dibawa ke laman yang akan meminta anda memberi label buta item baharu dan pemeriaannya. Jika anda mengguna gelintaran item mengikut tajuk, antara muka juga akan menampilkan dua medan yang anda isi semara penggelintaran. Jika anda mengguna pautan untuk membuat item baharu, jangan risau jika medan-medan ini tidak tampil. Isikan kesemua medan dan petik "Create" apabila anda sudah selesai. (lihat halaman 3 tutorial "Bagaimana Mahu Menyunting Wikidata" untuk maklumat lanjut)

Adding to an existing item page[edit]

Selain daripada label dan pemerian, dua lagi unsur sesebuah laman yang perlu diisi adalah alias dan pautan antara wiki.

A label is the most common name that an item would be known by. Labels are added to the text fields at the top of an item page to the "Label" column. Click "edit", type in the label, and click "save". A description is a short phrase designed to disambiguate the page in question from other pages with the same or similar labels. Descriptions are added in the same way as labels, to the "Description" column. See Help:Label and Help:Description for more on using labels and descriptions.

Anda boleh menambah alias dengan memetik butang "[add]" pada baris yang bermula dengan "⧼Wikibase-aliases-label⧽". Baris ini akan menonjol dengan warna biru muda dan kotak putih akan tampil. Anda dapat memasukkan alias pertama ke dalam kotak, dan ketika ini kota putih kedua juga kan tampil. Terus masukkan alias sehingga anda tiada lagi nama pilihan untuk ditambah, kemudian petik "[save]".

To add a sitelink to Wikidata, go to the section(s) below the appropriate heading(s), for example "Wikipedia" or "Wikiquote" and click the "edit" next to the heading. At the bottom of the sitelink group you will then be given two blank fields: a left field which says "wiki" and (shown after correct filling a first field) a right field which says "page". The left field is where you put the language of the Wikimedia site page that the item corresponds to. The right field is where you put the title of the page as it appears on the Wikimedia site. Both of these fields contain drop downs that will help you fill in the information once you begin typing. When you have filled out both fields, click "save". See Help:Sitelinks for more information.

Please note: When clicking on any "edit" or "+ add" before the page has fully loaded you might be taken to a separate page with a special interface. This will also let you make the intended changes but it is more difficult to use. If the page does not appear as depicted on the images to the right after clicking "edit" or "+ add" you might want go back, wait for the browser to finish loading the page (usually there is an indication on top of the browser's tab) and then click "edit" or "+ add" again.

Examples of four fields filled out for the item Marie Curie (Q7186)

Language Item Label Description Aliases Link to Wikipedia Page
Inggeris (en) Q7186 Marie Curie French-Polish physicist and chemist Maria Salomea Skłodowska; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Marie Curie
Perancis (fr) Q7186 Marie Curie physicienne et chimiste française d'origine polonaise Maria Salomea Skłodowska herb Dołęga; Maria Skłodowska-Curie; Marie Sklodowska-Curie; Maria Skłodowska Marie Curie
Poland (pl) Q7186 Maria Skłodowska-Curie polsko-francuska uczona, fizyk, noblistka Maria Curie-Skłodowska; Marie Curie; Maria Skłodowska Maria Skłodowska-Curie

Editing an item page[edit]

How an item page is build up

All four fields, the label, description, aliases, and sitelinks, are editable. To edit an existing element, click on the "edit" button and then enter the new or updated information. Then click "save". If an alias or sitelink is incorrect, you can remove it. To do this, first click on the "edit" button and then either delete the alias you wish to remove, or click the bin icon for the sitelink you wish to remove. Then click "save". The element will immediately disappear and be removed from the database.

Deleting an item page[edit]

Only admins can delete items. Deletions are done via Wikidata:Requests for deletions. Please give a short reason.

See also[edit]

Untuk panduan lanjut, lihat:

  • Bantuan:Label, yang menerangkan apa itu label dan peraturan-peraturan yang diikuti label-label
  • Bantuan:Pemerian, yang menerangkan apa itu pemerian dan peraturan-peraturan yang diikuti pemerian-pemerian
  • Bantuan:Alias, yang menerangkan apa itu alias dan peraturan-peraturan yang diikuti alias-alias
  • Bantuan:Penyataan, yang menerangkan apa itu penyataan peraturan-peraturan yang diikuti penyataan-penyataan
  • Bantuan:Pautan tapak, yang menerangkan apa itu pautan tapak dan peraturan-peraturan yang diikuti pautan tapak

For additional information and guidance, see:

  • Project chat, for discussing all and any aspects of Wikidata
  • Wikidata:Glossary, the glossary of terms used in this and other Help pages
  • Help:FAQ, frequently asked questions asked and answered by the Wikidata community
  • Help:Contents, the Help portal featuring all the documentation available for Wikidata