Help:Statements

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In Wikidata, a concept, topic, or object is represented by an item. Each item is accorded its own page. A statement is how the information we know about an item—the data we have about it—gets recorded in Wikidata. This happens by pairing a property with at least one value; this pair is at the heart of a statement. Statements can also be expanded on, annotated, or contextualized with additional values, as well as optional qualifiers, references, and ranks. Statements also serve to connect items to each other, resulting in a linked data structure.

Language Item Property Value
English Marie Curie occupation physicist
français Marie Curie profession physicien
polski Maria Skłodowska-Curie zawód fizyk
  Q7186 P106 Q169470

Example:

In order to include information about the occupation of Marie Curie in Wikidata, you would need to add a statement to the item for Marie Curie, Marie Curie (Q7186). Using the property, occupation (P106), you could then add the value physicist (Q169470). You could also add the value chemist (Q593644). Note how both chemist and physicist have their own pages in Wikidata, thereby allowing Marie Curie to be linked to these items.

Language independent general principles[edit]

Overview of a Wikidata statement
example of a simple statement consisting of one property-value pair
example of a statement consisting of multiple values for one property
example of a strong Wikidata statement consisting of one property-value pair, qualifiers, and a reference

A statement consists of a property-value pair, for example, "location: Germany."

The property in a statement describes the data value, and can be thought of as a category of data like "color", "population," or "Commons media" (files hosted on Wikimedia Commons). The value in the statement is the actual piece of data that describes the item.

Statements can also be expanded upon, annotated, or contextualized with the addition of optional qualifiers, references, and ranks.

Properties[edit]

Each property in Wikidata is assigned a pre-defined data type which restricts what can be added as its value. For example, only text can be added as a value for the property "color", only numbers can be added for the property "population," and only file formats can be added for the property "Commons media."

An automatically generated list of properties currently supported by Wikidata can be found at Special:AllPages/Property:. A community-maintained list that organizes properties by subject matter can also be found at Wikidata:List of properties/all (please note: the community list is not always current).

For information on creating new properties, please see Help:Properties.

If you are unsure whether the property you are using is most appropriate for the statement, consult the property's talk page or ask on Wikidata:Project chat. A property's talk page is also where you'll find what kind of data types are supported and can be added.

For more information on how to use properties including bidirectional properties, such as child-parent and parent-child, or common hierarchical properties, such as dog-wolf, please see Help:Properties.

Values[edit]

Multiple values[edit]

If an item by nature can have properties with multiple values (like children of a person or official languages of a country), it is perfectly acceptable to add them.

If on the other hand an item ideally should have only one value (like the population of a city) but has multiple values (for example, because different sources report different numbers). All values may be added and additional qualifiers should be used. Qualifiers are used to further describe or refine the value of a property given in a statement. Please see Help:Qualifiers for more information.

Unknown or no values[edit]

There are times when an item has either no value or an unknown value for a given property. Depending on the property, these data values still provide important information about an item and should still be recorded in Wikidata. For example, we could say that Elizabeth I of England (Q7207) had no value for the child (P40) property, which is quite different than not recording anything at all. We could also say that William Shakespeare (Q692) has an unknown value for the date of birth (P569) property.

The majority of values in Wikidata will be custom values, and are entered in the usual fashion. Unknown values and no values are added to statements by clicking on the icon beside the value field that looks like this Wikidata snak icon.png.

Add only verifiable information[edit]

Wikidata is not a database that stores facts about the world, but a secondary knowledge base that collects and links to references to such knowledge. This means that Wikidata does not state what the population of Germany actually is; it simply provides the information on what the population of Germany is according to a specific source, such as the The World Factbook (Q11191) CIA World Factbook.

As such, most statements should be verifiable by referenceable sources of information like a book, scientific publication, or newspaper article. In Wikidata, references are used to point to specific sources that back up the data provided in a statement. For more information, please see Help:Sources.

Plurality and consensus[edit]

Because statements essentially point to referenceable sources of information and different sources may provide contradicting information, it's possible to represent a plurality of perspectives on Wikidata.

In case of disputes, community consensus determines the value of a property, however other points of views can be added as additional values as long as they include a source and appropriate qualifiers. Ranks can also be used; if a consensus exists, it should be indicated by a preferred rank. For more information on ranks, please see Help:Ranking.

Please note that disputes should be discussed on the item's discussion page. Edit warring over values is not acceptable.

Disambiguation and other non-item Wikimedia pages[edit]

Disambiguation pages should have only the property 'instance of (P31)' with the value 'Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410)'.

When a Wikidata item refers to a Wikimedia page itself rather than to the subject of the Wikimedia page, the instance of (P31) property should be used to identify the type of page. This includes Category, Template and other pages outside the main namespace.

Examples:

item: Madonna (Q1564372)
instance of: Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410)
item: List of lighthouses in Iceland (Q3253135)
instance of: Wikimedia list article (Q13406463)

Where a Wikipedia page covers more than one concept, object or thing use 'has part (P527)' to link to separate Wikidata pages for each of the individual concepts, objects or things.

Exclusion criteria[edit]

Wikidata statements should be sourced and contain trustworthy neutral references.

The following types of information should not be added as Wikidata statements:

How to add statements[edit]

Statements are added to an item page—in this case, for Marcel Bouix (Q16775650)—in the following way:

Scroll down to the Statements section
Click on "add" at the very bottom of all other statements
In the new property field that appears, start typing the property
Select the property from the options that appear in the entity suggester
In the new field that appears to the right of the property, start typing the value. When done click "save"
The final statement will appear like this. To change or delete it, click "edit"

To add qualifiers, sources, or ranks, please see the appropriate help documentation listed at the bottom of the page.

Sorting statements[edit]

It is possible to sort statements on an item page so that the order in which they appear is different; this is especially useful for organizing pages for items that have a lot of statements. To move a statement up or down, you first need to be in edit mode.

Once the statement is highlighted in blue, click on the small arrows on the top right.
The statement will move up or down one property-value pair depending on which arrow is clicked. If a statement has only one property-value pair, clicking on a sorting arrow will cause the statement to switch places with the statement above or below it. If a statement has multiple property-value pairs, the position of the values within a statement will be switched.

See also[edit]

For related Help pages, see:

  • Help:Properties, which explains what properties are and what rules they follow
  • Help:Sources, which explains what sources are and what rules they follow
  • Help:Qualifiers, which explains what qualifiers are and what rules they follow
  • Help:Ranking, which explains what ranks are and what rules they follow

For additional information and guidance, see:


  • Wikidata:Project chat, for discussing all and any aspects of Wikidata
  • Wikidata:Glossary, the glossary of terms used in this and other Help pages
  • Help:FAQ, frequently asked questions asked and answered by the Wikidata community
  • Help:Contents, the Help portal featuring all the documentation available for Wikidata